Waterfall



Chimes sing Sunday morn
Today's the day she's sworn
To steal what she never could own
And race from this hole she calls home

Now you're at the wheel
Tell me how, how does it feel ?
So good to have equalized
To lift up the lids of your eyes

As the miles they disappear
See land begin to clear
Free from the filth and the scum
This American satellite's won

She'll carry on through it all
She's a waterfall
She'll carry on through it all
She's a waterfall

See the steeple pine
The hills as old as time
Soon to be put to the test
To be whipped by the winds of the west

Stands on shifting sands
The scales held in her hands
The wind it just whips her and wails
And fills up her brigantine sails

She'll carry on through it all
She's a waterfall
She'll carry on through it all
She's a waterfall


Lyrics by:
Squire / Brown

Music by:
Squire

Written:
1987

Personnel:
John Squire (guitar)
Ian Brown (vocals)
Gary Mounfield (bass)
Alan Wren (drums, backing vocals)

Producer:
John Leckie

Engineer:
Paul Schroeder

Format:
Released 1991:
Waterfall (Silvertone, ORE T DJ 34, 12" promo)
Waterfall (7" version) / One Love (7" version) / Waterfall (12" version) / One Love (12" version) (Silvertone, 06192-10041-2, Canadian CD)

Released January 1992:
Waterfall (Paul Oakenfold / Steve Osborne Remix) (7" Edit) / One Love (Adrian Sherwood Remix) (7" Edit) (Silvertone, ORE 35, 7")
Waterfall / One Love (Silvertone, ORE ZT 35, 12" with print)
Waterfall (7" version) / One Love (7" version) / Waterfall (12" version) / One Love (12" version) (Silvertone, ORE CD 35, CD)
Waterfall / One Love (Silvertone, ORE C 35, cassette)

Released June 1992:
Waterfall (7" version) / One Love (7" version) / Waterfall (12" version) / One Love (12" version) (Alfa-Silvertone, ALCB-543, Japanese CD from Singles Collection boxset)

UK chart details:
Waterfall entered the charts on 11th January 1992, spending 4 weeks in the charts and reaching a highest position of 27.

Also available on:
The Stone Roses (4.37)
The Complete Stone Roses (3.36)
The Stone Roses (10th Anniversary Edition) (4.38)
The Very Best Of The Stone Roses (4.41)

First live performance:
In 1987.

Artwork details:
The Waterfall artwork is from 'Waterfall' (1988), oil on canvas, 30" x 26"

Details:

 

 

 

Top left: The Stone Roses had a strong gang mentality (further bolstered when they took the law into their own hands in January 1990), redolent of The Clash. Indeed, The Clash and The Stone Roses would follow comparable trails - the drummer in each band (Headon, Reni) would depart, followed a year later by the guitarist (Jones, Squire); meanwhile, the remaining vocalist (Strummer, Brown) and bassist (Simonon, Mani) would limp to an undignified finish in an inglorious last stand.
Top right: The Clash's 'This Is England' single cover. Where 'I'm So Bored With The U.S.A.' (from The Clash's eponymous 1977 debut LP) voiced the band's frustration at the inescapability of U.S. culture, 'This Is England' turned that ire inward, towards their homeland. Written in late 1983, 'This Is England' is a more focused variant of 'Straight to Hell', cataloguing the problems in England during the early years of the Thatcher administration. It addresses inner-city violence, urban alienation, life on council estates, high unemployment rate, England's dying motorcycle industry, racism, nationalism and police corruption as well as two very common subject matters for mid-1980s left-wing songwriters - the Falklands War and the consumerist, subservient mind-set of many English people at the time. In 1982, Margaret Thatcher's iron grip was strengthened by a decisive naval victory in the Falklands War, the largest naval conflict since World War II. Those oblivious to the content of the song could easily mistake the anthemic chorus - 'This Is England...' - as a statement of national pride, as opposed to a blunt summative statement of what the country had degenerated to.
Second row (left): Ian Brown in his scooter days, when he was heavily into Northern Soul. 'Stormtroopers in Sta-Prest' is the title of a song by punk band, The Last Resort. Sta-Prest (intended to be pronounced as 'stay pressed') is a brand of wrinkle-resistant trousers produced by Levi Strauss & Co., beginning in 1964. Marketed as wearable straight out of the dryer, with no need for ironing, these trousers were especially popular among British mods of the mid 1960s, as well as among traditionalist mod revivalists of later decades. Various sources claim that an early incarnation of The Stone Roses was called English Rose, named after Track 5 of The Jam's 1978 All Mod Cons LP. This suggestion, however, is dismissed by Ian Brown in conversation with Record Collector in February 1998.
Second row (right): The Last Resort was a name synonymous with the Oi! movement, both as a shop catering for those of the skinhead persuasion in the '80s and also as one of the bands of that era whose reputation far outweighed their recorded output; the band were only together originally for little over a year between 1980 and 1982. Mani met Ian Brown in the fight against Fascism, through the former's North Manchester scooter gang. They were having trouble with a gang of local skinheads and when word reached Ian's South Manchester crew, they joined forces and hospitalised them.
Bottom row: On 17th October 2009, Mani joined mod revival group The Purple Hearts onstage at Manchester Club Academy, as part of the band's reunion tour. Prior to their formation as a band, The Stone Roses met through a scooter club in Chorlton, the Chorlton Trojans. Mani ('the mod') acquired his first scooter, a Lambretta LI150, in exchange for a gas heater. In 2009, the bassist set up a little monthly rave up called The Beat Club, at Cord Bar in the Northern Quarter, with the intention of pulling in music fans from many of the scooter clubs all over the North West. In 2010, Mani made a guest appearance on the British drama series Shameless (Series 7, Episode 9), acting as a member of the Manchester Lyons Scooter Club. Ian Brown was an actual member of the Manchester Lyons in his younger days. Click here to view a photo of Mani on his 1966 Lambretta SX200.

In the early 1970s a new generation of youngsters in the north were transforming the old ballrooms and dancehalls of their parents' generation into citadels of the northern soul experience, creating a genuine alternative to mainstream British pop culture. When Ian Brown was 17, he and a friend from Salford used to put on a Northern Soul night at the Black Lion in Blackfriars Street, where they would hire a room for £15 and invite all their friends. Mani first met John Squire (via Mani's friend, Kaiser) in the Northern Soul room at the Pips club in Manchester, in the summer of 1979. With roots in the mod culture of the 1960s, Northern Soul was a dynamic fusion of fashions, dance moves and vinyl obsession. Spawning a circuit of all-nighters, it marked the birth of late-night dance culture in Britain. At its high point, thousands of disenchanted white working class youths across the north of England danced to obscure, mid-1960s Motown-inspired sounds until the break of dawn. It was a template for the Acid House explosion in 1988, thriving through an ad hoc, word-of-mouth network and a drug-fuelled underground dance movement. Swap speed for ecstasy and you've essentially got the same scene.

While Jimmy Page was the benchmark for John Squire circa Second Coming, Mick Jones was the biggest influence on the first-coming Squire (a Fourth Form Biology book is saturated with Clash slogans). These two figures would be in the audience to cast an eye on their guitar progeny when The Stone Roses played London's Village Underground in August 2012. Specifically, it was Joe Strummer's distillation of the punk ethos which served as the catalyst for Squire. He recalls a Clash interview on TV in which Strummer, when asked if he had any advice for the kids out there, turned to the camera in a very stoic move, saying: "Believe in yourself, you can do anything you want." Squire reflected years later, "That one went in and stayed." Ian had introduced John to the music of The Clash, bringing records - such as their debut LP, 'God Save The Queen' by Sex Pistols and 'One Chord Wonders' by The Adverts - to his house when they were in their teens. A week later, John had bought the first two of the aforementioned records and developed a strong interest in The Clash, following the band on their '16 Tons' tour. John did, however, miss out on an opportunity to meet his idols, due to other commitments. Ian Brown and Pete Garner heard that The Clash were rehearsing somewhere in Manchester. After some investigation, they made their way to the Pluto Recording studios in Granby Row, waiting expectantly outside. The Clash arrived to work on 'Bankrobber' and the two Patrol members blagged their way into the studios as part of the band's entourage. Though Squire missed out on this adventure, he did get to perform this very Clash track with Mick Jones at Manchester Ritz in December 2011. Pete Garner (who lived round the corner from Manchester Ritz) was also present at this 2011 reunion, having been invited by Ian Brown and John Robb via phone shortly before the gig. So, too, was Si Wolstencroft, making the event a Patrol reunion every bit as much as a Stone Roses reunion. Mick's drummer was late for the soundcheck and, with Squire and Brown needing a drummer to run through 'Bankrobber', Wolstencroft - formerly of The Patrol and very briefly, The Stone Roses - stepped up. Ian was unimpressed by the rock star persona of Joe Strummer at the 1980 Bankrobber rehearsal, describing the experience as somewhat of a disappointment: "He sat under this grandfather clock, clicking his fingers in time with it. I thought, what a dick !" (Ian Brown, Record Collector, 1998). This encounter would have further solidified Ian's preference for the Sex Pistols, of the two punk acts. John's interest in The Clash would continue to grow however. Brown and Squire were, unsurprisingly, drawn toward the strident individualism of the mod movement; of the two, Ian was the first to develop an interest in scooters - one that blossomed through his interest in Northern Soul. John only became serious after watching Quadrophenia, and soon after, would assemble his own Lambretta, rebuilding a GP200 from the frame. His scooters were duly emblazoned with Clash lyrics, such as "Too chicken to even try it" from 'White Riot'. Squire first became aware of Jackson Pollock through The Clash, who customised their stage gear with Pollock-esque paint splashes (although, of the Punk era, the Sex Pistols' Glen Matlock was actually the first to do it). He cites seeing one particular Pollock-themed photograph in The Clash photo book, by Pennie Smith, as the inspiration for his own incorporation of art into the medium of music. Being an obsessive fan of The Clash, John made a visit to Manchester's Central library to look for books on Pollock:

   

 

 

 

 

 

Top (left to right): John Squire with DIY typography typical of the punk era, on his shirts. "Ain't no fucking jukebox" is an emphatic response to public demand for a Stone Roses reformation, with Squire expressing an unwillingness to be a 'Stone Roses jukebox.' "Screw the government" is a lyric from the John Squire solo track, Transatlantic Near Death Experience, while "Dumb celebrity incinerator" bemoans the celebrity-obsessed culture in which we live. Rather than being a by-product of achievement, celebrity status increasingly is an achievement of by-product. In 2011, Squire's contempt for the esteemed status enjoyed by celebrity in modern Western culture merged with his interest in Islamic religious art to yield the 'Celebrity' series of artworks. Should John need any more inspiration for further titles in this 'Celebrity' series, some of the invitees at the Adidas bash in August 2012 might fit the bill ! For The Stone Roses' reunion tour in 2012, Squire had the opening verse of Waterfall inscribed on his guitar.
Second row (left): The original Sex Pistols line-up, with Glen Matlock on bass. The adjacent photo of Karl Marx was much used in the punk era - see, for example, Glen Matlock's shirt above, and on the Sex Pistols' 'Anarchy in the UK' performance on 'So It Goes', in August 1976. Ian also wears his influences on his sleeve, as this very image can be found on the record jacket of his Solarized LP. Sex Pistols guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook later appeared on Ian's fifth solo album, The World Is Yours.
Third row: Pollock's oeuvre begins to crystallize the band's identity circa Elephant Stone. Action painting was a phrase coined by the critic Harold Rosenberg in 1952 to define the abstract, gestural painting then prevalent. Rosenberg referred particularly to Willem de Kooning, although later the phrase came to be popularly associated with the name of Jackson Pollock, and with the splashing or squirting of paint on canvas; it has also been used synonymously with Abstract Expressionism and with tachisme, a French term for much the same thing. According to Rosenberg, the canvas had become 'an arena in which to act', the scene of an encounter between the artist and his materials - an encounter possessing a psychological as well as a physical dimension. The term has been rejected by many artists and critics because of Rosenberg's linkage of the artist's psyche to European existentialist thought, and because of the Formalist criticism of, notably, Clement Greenberg.
Fourth row: 'Never mind the Pollocks: Here's The Stone Roses.' The iconic November 1989 NME front cover session with photographer Kevin Cummins in November 1989. At the end of this session, Cummins had to break the news to the band - after covering themselves in emulsion paint for in excess of three hours - that there were no showering facilities in the building. None too pleased, the band put handprints all down the stairwell of the building, returning to Ian's flat in a minibus to wash themselves. Squire's artwork accompanying The Stone Roses' releases were explosive imitations of Pollock's work, embodying the electrifying illumination of their sound. Flowing crystalline guitar lines, funky chunks of distortion, looping kinetic splendour and helical sparks are transmitted here in a joyous rhythm. If Pollock's paintings were energy made visible, then Waterfall was a Pollock painting translated into sound.
Fifth & sixth rows: Brown's Pollocked shirt was tailored by Squire.
Seventh row (left): Paul Simonon with his Pollocked bass. This Clash photograph shows Simonon fusing elements of Pollock and DIY typography. "The Buzzcocks were very Mondrian and we were Pollock", reflected Simonon years later. Like Simonon, Squire would carve out a career in the art world following the dissolution of his band.
Seventh row (right) and bottom left: Like much of pop music history, The Beatles can justifiably lay claim to having gotten there first. See the Strawberry Fields Forever video, in which the band pour paint on a piano in Knole Park, Sevenoaks, Kent, in January 1967.
Bottom right: William Reid with his Pollocked guitar.

John Squire, a self-taught artist, was the taciturn and introspective mirror to Ian Brown's outspoken bolshiness. He attended Heyes Lane Junior School, and passed his 11+ exam. Squire and Brown grew up on the same street, Sylvan Avenue, in the South Manchester suburb of Timperley and attended Altrincham Grammar School for Boys, where their polar-opposite personalities came together; the introverted Squire and gregarious Brown shared a love of '60s rock and punk music, and an interest in politics. Whereas Brown preferred the exuberant nihilism of the Sex Pistols, Squire’s interest was drawn more towards The Clash, an idealistic band, charged with righteousness and a leftist political ideology. He excelled in art classes at school and was often excused from attending P.E. so that he could develop his artistic talents. Squire obtained his first guitar at the age of 14 and spent many hours in his bedroom practising, at the same time developing a strong interest in modern art: "I picked up a guitar when I was 14 and I can distinctly remember sitting on the bedroom windowsill playing Three Blind Mice on one string, and thinking 'this is gonna take a long time...'" (John Squire speaking to Radio 4, 2007). Squire did reasonably well academically until leaving for college at 16, and formed a band, The Patrol. He worked hard on the guitar and used the art department after hours to make screen-printed posters and flyers for gigs. The band didn't make it, and Squire subsequently worked at Tesco, as a barman at the local, as a labourer at a market garden, and as a grease monkey for a roller shutter maintenance firm. Squire came from a family of artists - his brother could draw, his mother did ceramics and oil painting at night school, and his father, an engineer, made toys and go-karts for his boys - but he was the first to pursue it professionally. Despite failing A-Level Art, Squire gained a foothold in the art world with Chorlton-based children's TV production company Cosgrove Hall Films. Squire's cousin saw a programme about them on Granada Television and encouraged John to pay them a visit; he duly made a model of a little garden shed, put it on a little plinth and surrounded it with rusty spades and broken plant pots. He took it to a director and she said, 'Yeah that's nice, but you need to go to college.' On his way out, Squire had the fortune of running into the boss on the stairs, with whom Squire left his name. A fortnight later, the company - entering its golden age with the success of Danger Mouse - were overloaded with work and they started to give Squire freelance jobs; his first unenviable task was to make one hundred miniature onions, out of clay and paper. Squire created work for TV programmes such as Cockleshell Bay, The Wind in the Willows, and a pilot of Fungus the Bogeyman, based on the Raymond Briggs story. Raymond Briggs is one of the foremost creators of illustrated books for adults and children, including The Snowman and Father Christmas. When the Wind Blows, a 1982 novel by Briggs, inspired a song of this title by The Waterfront in 1983. Squire retained his position at Cosgrove Hall until 1984, the year of The Stone Roses' formation.

   

Left to right: Cockleshell Bay, The Wind in the Willows, and Fungus the Bogeyman. "There's a story going round that I was an animator that I need to clarify. I was the worst animator in the building. I was employed as a prop-maker, making little pots and pans, joints of beef and miniature onions, all on commission. I would sit in my bedroom listening to The Clash and making all of the s*** for kids' television, but it was great experience. They took me on full time, which was great. The studio was full of all these old hippies, and I created the first Stone Roses covers in the studio at work. They eventually gave me a shot at animating but I was awful. All of my characters looked like they needed a visit to the chiropractor once I'd got my hands on them." (John Squire speaking to Fife Today, 8th July 2010)

The genesis of John Squire's interest in painting was American painter Nancy Kominsky, as he revealed to The Guardian in 2007:

'Paint Along With Nancy' was a UK television programme made by HTV West in the mid-to-late 1970s, shown on the ITV network in a daytime slot - usually 12.30 or 3.30pm. The programme aimed to teach viewers - ostensibly housewives and sick school children (or in Squire's case, a school child playing truant) - to paint, following the instructions of Philadelphian artist, Nancy Kominsky, who would create a painting in twenty-five minutes. Initially, her 'assistant' was popular HTV West personality Alan Taylor. Starting with the ritual wash of burnt umber and turpentine, Nancy would then follow through with a set of grid lines (to place the subject) and roughly sketch in a drawing of sorts using a brush, before moving on to a palette knife. An unorthodox practitioner in the field, Nancy would implore viewers to copy from the Impressionists, "as they have distortion of form"; "Paint what you see and not what you know to be there." In response to a lady who asked her "Why paint ?", she replied, "I paint to match the drapes." Nancy had already done an earlier version, to facilitate 'the recap' at the end of the show, where the picture would paint itself in less time than even Nancy could manage. This sequence, (shot on 16mm although, curiously edited on VT) was always heralded by a luxurious chord on the harp. Titles of her work on the show included: 'Stawberries', 'Snow in Central Park', 'Twilight in the Cotswolds', 'Nasturtiums', 'Still Life - Vegetables', 'Yellow Tulips', 'San Juan Mountains, Colorado', 'White Daisies', 'Old Rome', 'Wind on the Adriatic', 'Last Three in Totterdown' and 'Red Apples'. John Squire cites artist Tom Keating as being an influence at this time also. Keating was an art restorer and famous art forger who claimed to have forged more than 2,000 paintings by over 100 different artists. Keating was born in Lewisham, London, into a poor family. After World War II he began to restore paintings for a living, though he also worked as a house painter to make ends meet. He exhibited his own paintings, but he failed to break into the art market. Keating perceived the gallery system to be rotten, dominated, he said, by American "avant-garde fashion, with critics and dealers often conniving to line their own pockets at the expense both of naive collectors and impoverished artists." Keating retaliated by creating forgeries to fool the experts, hoping to destabilize the system. Keating planted 'time-bombs' in his products, leaving clues of the paintings' true nature for fellow art restorers or conservators to find. For example, he might write text onto the canvas with lead white before he began the painting, knowing that x-rays would later reveal the text. He deliberately added flaws or anachronisms, or used materials peculiar to the twentieth century. Keating was finally arrested in 1977 and accused of conspiracy to defraud, but the case was dropped on account of his bad health. Through 1982 and 1983 Keating rallied, however, and though in fragile health, he presented television programmes on the techniques of old masters for Channel 4 in the UK. This step-by-step demonstration in replicating the art of the Great Masters would have made an indelible impression on a youthful Squire, who himself was to 'do a Keating' on the works of Jackson Pollock later that decade (See also Squire's very own 'Make your own watercolour' televisual piece, recorded at the Tate in 2010).

Nancy Kominsky on set.  Alan Taylor.  Nancy Kominsky.

Opening titles.  Alan and Nancy.  Alan and Nancy.  Grid lines.

Mixing the paints.  'The recap'.  End titles.  Alan.

Alan and Nancy.  Nancy at work.  Alan and Nancy.  Nancy at work.  Alan and Nancy.

Snow in Central Park by Nancy Kominsky.  Yellow Tulips by Nancy Kominsky.

'Paint Along With Nancy'. Hover over an individual picture for further details.

In his explanation of 'I'm So Bored With The U.S.A.' (Squire would perform a cover of this track by The Clash as an encore for his 2003 solo tour, in tribute to the recently deceased Joe Strummer*), Mick Jones, guitarist of The Clash, said that it was a criticism of the dominating influence of American culture on British life. The band went to an ice-cream parlour, bought ice-creams and wrote on the window with the ice-creams, 'I'm So Bored With The USA'. This Clash song made references to American support of dictatorships (something that was later elaborated on, on their track, 'Washington Bullets'), the over-riding dominance of American culture and the Watergate scandal, as Mick Jones explains:

In some 1989 interviews, Squire said almost those exact words about Waterfall. He explained how the song and accompanying artwork – the American flag overshadowing a British one - was a criticism of the influence of American culture on British life. With the increasing 'Americanisation' of the British landscape in the 1980s, the warning of Johnny Rotten on 'Anarchy in the U.K.' - 'Your future dream is a shopping scheme' - became a distinct reality. When Ronald Reagan became U.S. president in 1981, he repackaged the American Dream.

A detail of the original 1988 painting, 'Waterfall', was originally used in the insert of the Roses' debut LP (and spearheaded the album's promotion). John would revisit 'Waterfall' on two subsequent artworks: '15 Days' (2003) and 'gtr' (2004). In 2007, 'Marshall Artist' asked a select group of artists to design a t-shirt, with £10 from each one sold being donated to the charity of the artist's choice. The complete list of artists were: Amp Fiddler, Ash, Larrikin Love, Lauren Laverne, Mani, Nightmares on Wax, Paul Oakenfold, Rob da Bank, Roots Manuva, Shaun Ryder, The Mitchell Brothers, The Subways, and Trevor Nelson. Mani's contribution fuses elements of Squire's 'Waterfall' artwork, Ian Brown's 'money burning' shirt, Clash DIY typography and Jamie Reid's Sex Pistols artwork.

 

 

   

 

Top left: Waterfall artwork.
Top right: Mani's shirt features the flags and currency of Britain and America in collage form.
Second row: '15 Days' (plaster of paris, acrylic and gloss, 2003) (left, and detail, right) and 'gtr' (oil on canvas, 72" x 90", 2004) further explored the British national consciousness.
Third row: Squire's Waterfall artwork showing the American flag encroaching upon a British one bears the influence of 'Three Flags' (1958) by American artist Jasper Johns. Done in encaustic style (wax and pigment on canvas), this piece by Johns consists of three concentric American flags. In the expressionist paint strokes of Johns' series of flags, the vocabulary of geometry reentered American art, and the application of painterly richness of surface to a commonplace American icon signalled the transition from Abstract Expressionism to Pop Art. The single flag - and later the target shape, arabic numerals, and letters of the alphabet - became the ubiquitous subject matter of the first period of Johns' art. From the beginning, he divested the flag of its original symbolic and conventional aesthetic usage. Instead, he transformed it into data for examining perception, visual ambiguity, and the meaning of art itself. What Johns painted was not the wavy, windblown banner of flagpoles and parades, but the flat, rigid flag characteristic of American folk art and craft. This decision had less to do with evoking American folk tradition than with transforming a charged patriotic symbol into a subdued compositional proposition. His single-flag images never suggested spatial depth; they defied the usual pictorial structure of figure against ground. In the culminating work of the first period of Johns' art, Three Flags, the subject became its own ground. Each of the tiered flags is diminished in scale by about twenty-five percent from the one behind, and projects outward, directly contrary to standard pictorial perspective. The interplay of one complete and two partially visible flags serves to emphasize both design and dimension. Instead of pictorializing the flag, as he had in earlier paintings, in Three Flags, Johns transformed it into an object.
Fourth row: Honourable mention here must also go to Mick Jagger's iconic cape, which amalgamated the British and American flags in a celebratory fashion. See too, the striking Union Jack emblazoned jacket worn by Mick Jones, in a London Weekend Show interview with The Clash, from 1976.
Bottom left: Ian Brown in 1989, wearing the 'money burning' shirt, personally designed by Paul Smith. Ian Brown often spoke in interviews at this time about how time was more important than money (see, for example, the band's Sounds magazine interview from 12th August 1989). Asked by Melody Maker in June 1989 what his family's reaction was when he started to take the band seriously, Ian replied, "'Get a proper job.', 'What's a proper job ?' is what I used to say. Still haven't had an answer. I don't think anyone should do anything unless it's stimulating. I don't think there's any reason to do anything you don't like. Cos time's far more important than money. You don't actually need money to have a good time. All I need is people to have a good time. John's different: he likes to be on his own." Ian perceived school to be a means of stultification, its only goal to make its pupils employer-friendly, and adjusted to prolonged periods of boredom. "Factory or university, that's all it prepares you for." This anti-royal insignia - currency bearing the Queen's head being set alight - thus, had an underlying quality, going against the decade's celebration of avarice. The economic boom under Thatcher's tenure was mirrored by the slick video production and ostentatious wealth on display from the decade's leading lights.
Bottom right: A still of the film, 'Watch the K Foundation Burn a Million Quid.' On 23rd August 1994, The K Foundation (an art duo consisting of Bill Drummond and Jimmy Cauty) took this concept much further, when they burned one million pounds sterling in cash on the Scottish island of Jura. This money represented the bulk of the K Foundation's funds, earned by Drummond and Cauty as The KLF, one of the UK's most successful pop groups of the early 1990s. Around about this time, Ian Brown was walking around Manchester with £100,000 in a carrier bag, giving out wads of cash to the homeless.

Growing up in the north during the Thatcher government's miner-crushing, at-war-with-Liverpool Council, imperialist phase was both a politicising and politically polarising experience. Ian Brown was, at the time, dismissive of the economic 'North/South divide' cliché: "We drive into London and we just turn off the motorway and we see people living under a bridge. What's it all about ?" (Ian Brown speaking to Melody Maker, 3rd June 1989). In November 1989, he would again address the debilitating effects of the divide and rule spirit of that era: "I don't recognise a North/South divide. There's poverty in London that would make your eyes bleed. There's poverty in Manchester, there's poverty in Glasgow. Poverty's poverty. Not everyone who lives south of Manchester is rich. Not everyone who lives north of London is poor. I don't believe there's a North/South divide at all. It's a media lie to divide the people. It's convenient and it's bullshit." ('What a Trip' interview, 22nd November 1989). Nonetheless, the mid-to-late '80s were a time when the major cities of the North of England - Manchester, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield - were significantly disconnected from both the central government and the popular media. In December 2011, previously secret government documents revealed that in the aftermath of the Toxteth riots, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was advised to abandon Liverpool to "managed decline" by her senior advisers. Geoffrey Howe, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, argued that enough money had been spent on the city and they should not expend all their resources "making water flow uphill." Government neglect of the North had obvious destabilizing repercussions, but it did serve to galvanize these cities (a Bailey Brothers t-shirt concept at the time read Just Say No To London). As a consequence, these cities and the surrounding towns - studded along a strip of motorway that later became the superhighway of the northern rave scene - were free to create and assert their own popular culture and political sensibilities. Manchester was placed as the UK's rave capital, and The Stone Roses, easy to dismiss at a glance as inward-looking '60s classicists, were right at the heart of this activity.

"This American satellite" in the third verse is Britain, and these lines convey a sense of determination that she will break free from America's dominance. The proclamation of victory here comes at sea; Britannia does indeed rule the waves. According to historian T.C.W. Blanning, the year 1917 has a good claim to be a truly pivotal moment in European history, for it witnessed a paradigm shift in world power; it was in this year that Europe lost control of its own affairs. The arrival of American troops both sealed the defeat of Germany and ensured that the subsequent peace settlement would be framed according to American interests. If the nineteenth century was the century of Europe - in which Britain was the leading overseas power, Germany the strongest on the continent - the twentieth century belongs to America.***

 

 

Top left: Britain's first female Prime Minister arrives at Downing Street to take up office (4th May 1979). The Stone Roses - in their early incarnation as The Patrol - were entering the music scene in 1979 just as Thatcher and the Conservatives were moving into Downing Street. The reign of the Conservatives came to an end in May 1997, soon after the Roses' own demise at the end of 1996, almost neatly bookending the duration of the two. It was perhaps fitting that after years of rancour, rumour and denial, The Stone Roses reformed in the wake of the Conservative return to power in 2010. In the midst of recession and economic crisis, the Conservative - Liberal Democrat coalition set in motion a series of social welfare cuts, bringing in an 'Age of austerity'. All in all, a familiar landscape and resonance from the band's first time around. Despite the impression given to the contrary by those with a hagiographic exuberance, the band, this time around, were not 'kicking against the system' or 'sticking it to the man', and were in an unimaginably more comfortable financial position.
Top right: The Brighton Hotel Bombing jolted Margaret Thatcher into implementing a tightening of security legislation to crack down on the Provisional IRA, also with an eye on fomenting industrial unrest. In Marcus Gray's biography on The Clash, 'Return of the Last Gang in Town', the author claims that "...bands like The Stone Roses and Happy Mondays established the late Eighties Madchester scene and portrayed themselves as amoral, apolitical hedonists." (p. 417). Gray is on sure-footed ground with his evaluation of the Happy Mondays' philosophy, a band who allegedly used to gleefully feed rat-poisoned bread to hundreds of pigeons, became chums with Ronnie Biggs, who penned the song 'Kuff Dam', and whose frontman Shaun Ryder once offered the vacuous political insight, "Thatcher ? She's all right. Yeah, she's a heavy dude." However, to describe The Stone Roses as politically neutral (or indeed, amoral) is inaccurate; political leanings within the band were strongly evident from quite an early stage (in this 1986 Chorlton press shot for example, Squire - whose nickname within the band was 'Red John' - can be seen wearing a rosette). Indeed, when such an accusation of political indifference was put to the band by the NME in December 1989, it was flatly refuted by Ian: "That's not true. We're quite happy to speak about politics. We don't give a f--- but we do if you see what I mean. We do have a social conscience. We do care. This business of just dousing yourself in a trance. Forget it." Close friend and photographer Ian Tilton certainly perceived 'Political' to be a suitable adjective to describe John Squire's fibre. One thing that The Stone Roses could not be accused of in their prime was sitting on the proverbial fence. Unashamedly regicidal and with sights set on tearing down the established order, the hardline political views of the band's lead singer enraged Tory MP Geoffrey Dickens to such an extent that he called for them to be banned from Top Of The Pops. The integral social and political facets of The Stone Roses' debut LP also bypassed Andy Darlington of Hot Press magazine in July 1990. Simon Reynolds, writing for Melody Maker in June 1989, was much closer to the mark in his overview of the band's insurrectional fervor: "The Stone Roses domain is the bittersweet - 'the sweet ache' of poignancy, 'cruel beauty' - but it takes a while before you realise just how citrus-sharp the bitter in their bittersweet is, before you wince at the acrid undercurrents of violence beneath the sugar-spun surface. Brutal put-downs of discarded lovers, outlandish fantasies of revenge, images of arson and stoning people to death, abound." Reynolds, however, then goes off track in suggesting a misogynist tone to their work. Biblical tracts interlace with revolutionary rhetoric, with an underlying dark humour fusing the album's anti-establishment love songs at every turn. Elizabeth My Dear threatens to pull the curtain on the British monarchy while tracks such as Elephant Stone and I Am The Resurrection channel the theme of a sudden, explosive liberation from suffocating oppression. Revolution was quite the buzzword in the band's press at this time. This was revolution revisited. One can trace a fervent political interest back to The Stone Roses' earliest incarnation as The Patrol. In conversation with Stone Roses website I Am Without Shoes, Andy Couzens revealed that The Patrol had a song called 'H-Block' (never performed live or put down in a proper studio), with the lyric, "I hope you die in H-Block, I hope you die in Ulster." When The Stone Roses took to the Blackpool Empress Ballroom stage on 12th August 1989, it was not Ian Brown's first experience of the venue - years earlier, he had blagged his way in there to see Tony Benn speak at a Labour Party conference, and listened intently from the back. In October 2007, Ian Brown's name would feature alongside that of Tony Benn in a 'Stop the Iraq War' petition, presented to UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown. When The Stone Roses were asked, by the NME in December 1989, who they respected, John Squire's response was Tony Benn. Squire and Brown's first appearance together on stage for 16 years in December 2011 was performing Elizabeth My Dear at Justice Tonight, in aid of the Hillsborough Justice Campaign. The band's very first foray into the music business was an anti-heroin benefit at Hampstead Moonlight, London in October 1984. As illustrated here and throughout this website, The Stone Roses held strong social and political views and were keen to espouse them in their music and interviews. During a press conference in 1989, Ian Brown bluntly remarked that "Thatcher should have gone up in the Brighton bomb." The Brighton hotel bombing was the attack by the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) on the Grand Hotel, Brighton in the early morning of 12th October 1984. The organisation detonated a bomb in the hotel where many politicians, including Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, were staying for the British Conservative Party conference. Thatcher was still awake when the bomb detonated at 2:54 am, working on her conference speech. It shredded through her bathroom barely two minutes after she had left it, but she and her husband Denis escaped injury. Five people died in the blast and thirty four were seriously injured. Ian Brown's dislike of an affiliation with a flag as a source of identity was largely specific to the Union Jack. A regular performer at Oxegen Festival in the Republic of Ireland in his solo career, Ian would happily each time wrap an Irish tricolour around him, to rapturous applause from the crowd (so too, on the Roses' 2012 reunion tour). Clutching an Irish tricolour onstage at the INEC, Killarney, on 27th November 2009, Ian said, "You're lucky, aren't ya ? You've got a flag that you can wave around. I haven't got one of them. We've just got one of them dirty Queen Elizabeth flags. You've got a proper flag. You're lucky, aren't ya ?" This particular flag at a solo gig in Ireland combined two elements certain to gain Ian's approval - the Irish tricolour and 'Free Nelson Mandela' graffiti. On one Oxegen appearance, Ian jokingly uttered a slogan synonymous with the militant Irish republican movement; his stance on Irish independence seems comparable to John Lennon in this respect. At a Homelands festival appearance with Primal Scream, Mani, who has strong Irish roots, also shouted "Tiocfaidh ár lá" ("Our day will come") at the conclusion of the band's set. This battlecry for Irish republicanism was not welcomed by some sections of the audience. Both Mani and Bobby Gillespie have been vocal with their views on the dispute in Northern Ireland. Ian Brown's hardline view - as exemplified by his comments on the Brighton bombing - was not limited to Thatcher, and seemed to extend to all loyal servants of the Empire. Speaking to the NME in Blackpool in August 1989, Ian Brown made the following utterly tasteless attempt at humour: '"What's got ten legs and can't swim ?" asks Ian with the enthusiasm and impatience of one who's just thought up a new joke. We lean closer over the barriers of Blackpool Promenade. "A dog and three policemen hahahaha !"' This was Blackpool's worst police sea tragedy, in which three policemen and a holidaymaker died on 5th January 1983 at sea, just off Gynn Square, after going to the aid of Alistair Anthony, who had jumped in to the sea to save his dog. Mani's dislike of the Force was just as strong; in the soundcheck footage of Spike Island, he can be seen obscuring his face and flicking the V-sign to a police helicopter hovering overhead. In a cringefest Benny Hill-style melee, Ian Brown cameoed as a copper in the 2010 four-part television drama, This Is England '86. In 2012, Meadows was in the process of commencing work on This Is England '90, centering on rave culture and the 1990 World Cup, and was planning to use Stone Roses music for the project. With The Stone Roses reforming, the director duly shelved plans for this to document the band's reunion.
Middle: A Miners' Strike Rally in London, 1984, the like of which Ian Brown and John Squire attended.
Bottom left: President Reagan chats with British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher at the White House in February 1981. Ian Brown attributes the powerful body of work to come out of Manchester in the '80s to that decade's dole culture. Any government is naturally keen to diminish dole culture, because that breathing space between education and work is a thinking space, in which all kinds of radicalism can foment. "It's gotta be down to dole culture. There are gangs of lads with loads of time on your hands, and you're all in the same boat...you're never alone on the dole in Manchester. And they were also the glory days when you could get your bedding grant and your cooker and all of that." This was indeed a period when stipulations concerning dole payment were not as rigid as they would later become; asked in a 1989 TV interview, "Have you ever exploited anyone or anything to get what you want ?", Squire, after giving the question prolonged thought, humorously answered, "Social Security." Upon collecting the 2010 MOJO Classic Album Award for The Stone Roses' eponymous debut, Mani said in his acceptance speech, "I'd like to thank Margaret Thatcher for putting me on the dole, and I'd also like to thank everybody who bought it for getting me off the dole." In response to the increasingly oppressive nature of Thatcher's rule, which saw the decimation of the steel and coal industries, Brown and Squire joined the Socialist Workers Party. They soon, however, became disillusioned with the organisation: "It was '84 and the miners' strike, and we went on the marches and all that. We only lasted two weeks because half of them just seemed like middle-class kids protesting for the sake of it - they didn't really have anything to protest about." (Ian Brown speaking to The Guardian, 23rd September 2005). Brown, equally briefly, transferred his allegiance to the Workers Revolutionary Party. The UK Miners' Strike of 1984-85 was a major industrial action affecting the British coal industry. The dispute began when the Conservative government, led by Margaret Thatcher, announced the closure of Cortonwood Colliery in Yorkshire. This was to be the first of 20 pit closures, resulting in the loss of 20,000 jobs. The National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) responded by calling for a national strike. At its height, 165,000 miners were out on strike. In many communities, miners' wives pushed the struggle forward, joining picket lines and arranging communal food kitchens. The state responded by putting more and more police into the coal fields. After 51 weeks on strike, a special delegate conference of the NUM voted by 98 to 91 votes to return to work. The strike was a defining moment in British industrial relations, and its defeat significantly weakened the British trades union movement. It was also seen as a major political and ideological victory for Margaret Thatcher and the Conservative Party, the seminal moment at which the Left lost and the Right won. Gareth Evans used to fund the Workers Revolutionary Party newspaper along with Malcolm Turney, who played Tommy McArdle in the Channel 4 soap, Brookside. Brown and Squire were also impressed by Evans' close association with actor Colin Redgrave, a lifelong activist in left-wing politics, who (along with his elder sister Vanessa) was a prominent member of the Workers Revolutionary Party.
Bottom right: A brigantine is a small vessel equipped both for sailing and rowing, swifter and more easily manoeuvered than larger ships, thus having particular use for piracy. It was a favourite of Mediterranean pirates and its name comes from the Italian word brigantino, meaning brigand, and applied by extension to his ship. They are now almost obsolete; there is currently only one sailing true brigantine in the world, the 'Eye of the Wind' (pictured here). Speaking to Clash Music magazine in September 2009, Ian Brown explains the incorporation of the word 'brigantine' into the song: "On each album, I try and get a word in on a pop song that I've never sung before... that's right back to Waterfall and the Roses. I've never heard the word 'brigantine' in a song before and on this one (My Way) it was 'inclement'. Yeah, I just try and put one in each album." Paul McCartney got there first with 'inclement' ("The willow turns his back on inclement weather") on With a Little Luck by Wings.

A wave rolled from the late '80s through to the late '90s; Britpop**** documentary 'Live Forever' (2003) opens with Waterfall, appropriate given its embryonic Britpop themes. Part of Britpop's manifesto was to roll back the dominance of the USA, not only musically, but also in a broader cultural sense.***** The Stone Roses had little affiliation with the course taken by Britpop, however, and had no desire to attach themselves politically to any party. The band were heavily critical of the previous Thatcher and Major regimes, but saw those taking over in 1997 as ineffectual: "Blair's got a massive landslide, the Tories smashed themselves and it was beautiful, but there's nothing to replace it. All the people who suffered through the Eighties... Blair wants to be everything to everybody, and he'll end up being none of them." (Ian Brown speaking to Uncut magazine, February 1998). The Britpop movement was characterised by a new-found pride in the Union Jack, and while Noel Gallagher had a Union Jack emblazoned on his guitar at the height of the movement, Ian Brown was furiously calling for one to be immediately taken down by a member of the audience at the 1996 Reading festival (One cannot imagine that Ian was comfortable either with the St George's Cross being waved in his direct eyeline during his Can't See Me Top Of The Pops performance). This anti-nationalistic fervour showed little sign of abating on The Stone Roses' reunion tour. During the segue between Waterfall and Don't Stop at NorthSide Festival, Denmark in June 2012, Ian became increasingly agitated by a fan waving an English flag and asked him to throw it onstage. The singer then motioned to spit on the flag and wipe his backside with it, before throwing it to the floor and stamping on it. During the verbal tirade that followed the end of Don't Stop, Ian paraphrased Banksy (Wall and Piece) in bluntly telling the fan, "People that wave flags don't deserve to have one." (In a classic case of life imitating art, Ian Brown was captured in this Banksy-esque frame while trying to avoid the limelight in spring 2014). He then delivers a line which has origin in The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, later homaged in Blazing Saddles, when he says "We don't need no stinkin' badges !" In his youth, Ian Brown did have a Union Jack tattooed on his arm - which he later attributed to being "Fifteen, pissed and foolish" - but became fiercely critical of the flag's symbolism in his adult years. The closest that any members of The Stone Roses ever came to willing attachment to the Union Jack was arguably John Squire's unfashionable choice of boxer shorts here. Speaking to the NME in December 1989 about the band's wish not to be exclusively confined to the Manchester scene, Squire was critical of both patriotism and regionalism. The guitarist quotes Samuel Johnson, "Patriotism is the last refuge of the scoundrel", before adding, "...and the same goes for regionalism." Discussing his new series of artwork - 'Re-Engineered Garments' - on The Culture Show in 2008, with its common theme of destroying the past, Squire gives an explanation as to its possible subconscious exploration of national identity: "I wondered if that was more than just a personal trait. I wondered if it was to do with the national psychology, whether it spoke to those ideas of, those cliches about Englishness, of reserve, self-control, restraint, y'know, that kind of thing. I wanted to exaggerate that by incorporating fabrics into the work that were synonymous with certain ideas of Englishness."

   

   

   

Clockwise from top-left:
The Verve's debut release, 1992's 'Verve EP', commented upon what was coming through our television screens on its front cover.
Noel Gallagher with trademark Union Jack emblazoned guitar. Oasis rehearsed relentlessly in Manchester Boardwalk in 1992 - 93; on the wall behind the band in their rehearsal room were two images that embodied their manifesto - a Beatles poster and a Union Jack painted on the wall (a video clip of this can be found further down the page). The Beatles led the British Invasion in 1964 - see, for example, the U.S. performance of Please Mister Postman with a large Union Jack overhead - and during the Britpop era, they were looked to once again to drive things forward. Everything old was new again and Beatlemania once again swept England courtesy of the Anthology series, which would see the release of new material.
Kate Moss wearing a Union Jack sweater in 1997.
David Bowie's Union Jack jacket, designed by Alexander McQueen in collaboration with Bowie, using distressed fabric. This was worn by Bowie at the 1996 Brit Awards, when he was presented with an 'Outstanding contribution' award by Tony Blair, and also featured on the cover of his 1997 'Earthling' album. In his speech at the Brits prior to presenting Bowie with the award, Blair namechecked The Stone Roses as one of the great bands of recent years: "British bands storming the charts, British music back once again in its rightful place at the top of the world. And at least part of the reason for that has been the inspiration that today's bands can draw from those that have gone before. Bands in my generation like The Beatles, The Stones and The Kinks. Of a later generation: The Clash, The Smiths, Stone Roses. But there is one man who spans the generations..."
Earlier in the decade (1992), former Smiths frontman Morrissey performed at the first Madness Madstock! reunion concert at Finsbury Park, London, appearing on stage draped in the Union Jack. He was accused by some of flirtation with racism, given the flag's association with nationalism and far right groups in Britain; as a backdrop for this performance, he chose a photograph of two female skinheads. Only with the cultural shift towards Britpop did such an embrace of nationalism become acceptable. The Union Jack was reclaimed from the National Front to be the leitmotif of a movement embracing music, fashion, film and art.
Patsy Kensit and Liam Gallagher on the front cover of Vanity Fair, March 1997.
The pin-up girl for Cool Britannia, Geri Halliwell, wearing the Union Jack dress at the 1997 Brit Awards. Geri hailed former Conservative Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher as her idol, while Noel Gallagher in the same year was sipping champagne with Tony Blair at 10 Downing Street.
Oasis, I propose, drawing inspiration from the Waterfall artwork. This photoshoot takes its lead from The Kids Are Alright artwork by The Who, with the added ingredient of a Union Jack draped over the Stars and Stripes.
Centre: Brett Anderson of Suede on the iconic 'Yanks Go Home' front cover of a Brit-centric issue of Select magazine, April 1993, heralding the end of grunge dominance and the birth of Britpop. Anderson was unhappy at being superimposed onto the Union Jack, sharing with Ian Brown a dislike of attachment to flags as a source of identity. Suede were integral in kick-starting the Britpop revolution, bringing English indie music away from the dance-pop fusions of 'Madchester' and the swirling layers of shoegazing, and introducing a dark glamour and sexual ambiguity to the scene, giving it a sinister edge. In 1993, the NME assisted Suede in launching an assault on mainstream music, when the magazine campaigned for the band to be allowed to perform at the Brit Awards. Traditionally a showcase for British music's old-guard, Suede's flamboyantly androgynous performance of 'Animal Nitrate' in such corporate surroundings was a spectacle in showcasing the gulf between the band and its tuxedoed audience. The single charted at Number 7 the following week and its accompanying video, directed by Pedro Romhanyi, caused controversy for its depiction of two men engaging in a kiss, and was duly banned.

While its follow-up, 1994's Second Coming, was a 'cocaine record', the debut LP was very much an 'Ecstasy record'. Such distinction can also be made in the releases of The Beatles in the 1960s from their drug of choice at the time, with the middle of the decade marking a more expansive outlook in the band's work: Preludin (Hamburg era), Amphetamines ('A Hard Day's Night'), Marijuana ('Rubber Soul'), LSD ('Revolver') and Heroin ('Let It Be'). Paul McCartney, the driving force behind 1967's 'Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band', used cocaine for a year in the creation of that album. The release could not be described as a 'cocaine record' in the vein of 'Second Coming' or 'Be Here Now', however. Speaking in 2004, McCartney describes how he also took grass to "balance it out", adding that he was "never completely crazy with cocaine." The French flag is turned upright, and positioned at the very left of The Stone Roses' debut LP cover, such that the eye reads it as an 'E' (more pronounced from the same era was Shaun Ryder's physical attachment to the 'E' of a Spanish 'HOTEL' sign, in the Happy Mondays' 'Step On' video...). In their early years, The Stone Roses experimented with speed and LSD, before moving on to weed in 1986. John Squire's first acid trip was in 1983, at his old flat on Zetland Road, in the company of Mani and Cressa. As the Second Summer of Love swept over England in 1988, the band started taking Ecstasy; Ian's once aggressive persona - of singing in people's faces, high-kicking, or kissing someone's girlfriend to wind their partner up - now mellowed dramatically. MDMA (Methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name Ecstasy, is thought to be an invention by the famous German chemist, Fritz Haber, in 1891. The patent for MDMA was originally filed on 24th December 1912 by the German pharmaceutical company Merck, after being first synthesised for them by German chemist Anton Köllisch at Darmstadt earlier that year. The patent was granted in 1914 and two years later, Köllisch died, unaware of the impact his synthesis would have. Due to the wording of the existing Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, MDMA was automatically classified as a Class A drug in 1977 in the UK, and was classified as a Schedule I controlled substance in the US from 31st May 1985. Before then, it was used both as an adjunct to psychotherapy and as a recreational drug. MDMA began to be used therapeutically in the mid-1970s after the chemist Alexander Shulgin introduced it to psychotherapist Leo Zeff. As Zeff and others spread the word about MDMA, it developed a reputation for enhancing communication, reducing psychological defenses, and increasing capacity for introspection. See the beginning of Timothy Leary's 1983 lecture in Boulder, Colorado (on the question "Can you give us specific information about XTC...") for insight, just as the drug begins to enter the public consciousness. MDMA appeared sporadically as a street drug in the late 1960s (when it was known as the 'love drug'), but it rose to prominence in the early 1980s in nightclubs in the Dallas area, and subsequently in gay dance clubs. From there, usage spread to rave clubs, and then to mainstream society. The street name of 'Ecstasy' was coined in California in 1982. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Ecstasy was widely used in the UK and other parts of Europe, becoming an integral element of rave culture and other psychedelic / dancefloor-influenced music scenes, such as Madchester and Acid House. The hedonism of the drug culture and its inherent 'living for the weekend' mentality, allied with years of frustration under Thatcher rule, were its primary motivations. Thatcher, unwittingly, had provided the ideal setting for the Acid House movement as thousands of revellers gathered in disused warehouse and factory sites up and down the country. The Stone Roses' debut LP was recorded at the very moment when the left-field culture of warehouse parties and political dissent was being augmented into ecstasy-fuelled rave culture. As the Iron Curtain was pried open and nations were either reunified or blasted apart at the heady dawn of the 1990s, The Stone Roses' 1990 Spike Island festival was a feeling of space and freedom. Thatcher's decade-long reign, too, was shortly to come to an end. The reignited festival culture was a reaction against the Thatcherite ideology that there was no society. Here, on a polluted wasteland near Widnes, was proof for all to see that Acid House culture had swept through rock'n'roll completely, and the 1990s were underway. Booze was out; 'Puff' and pills were in. Ian Brown's loved-up placidity formed the spiritual counterbalance to Shaun Ryder's untrammelled hedonism, with Brown's high cheekbones and angelic countenance making him the pin-up of the scene. During the 1990s, along with the growing popularity of the rave subculture, MDMA usage became increasingly widespread among young adults in universities and later, in high schools. It rapidly became one of the four most widely used illegal drugs in the US, along with cocaine, heroin and cannabis.

   

 

 

   

 

 

"Any minute you will feel / The chemistry / Vibrations in the brain / Can't ever be explained..."
Top: "God laid his Es all on me...". Ecstasy was the catalyst for the cultural change in the late eighties. (l - r) Bernard Sumner 'on one' on Top Of The Pops, performing Fine Time, 15th December 1988; the French tricolor in the shape of an 'E' on The Stone Roses' eponymous 1989 debut LP. When Ian Brown chanted "Who is and who isn't?" at Blackpool in 1989, he was asking who was - and who wasn't - on the drug; Shaun Ryder in the Step On video, 1990. The ultra-bright daisy head gear of Flowered Up's It's On video celebrated the third Summer of Love, and, as the mood darkened, the same band would best depict the acid house come-down of the early nineties, with the 1992 Weekender video.
Second row (left): In May 1989, The Stone Roses' debut LP was released and that month, the band sold out Manchester's International 2. Ian Brown walked onstage, ice cool, ringing a bell. The Stone Roses were ringing the changes, and three months later, at Blackpool Empress Ballroom, Ian replaced the bell with a fluorescent yo-yo, throwing ice-pops to the crowd, emphasising the party atmosphere of the occasion. The whole evening was a celebration of pop at its most uplifting and exciting.
Second row (right): Through 1989, Sunrise, Biology (Jarvis Sandy), Energy (Quentin 'TinTin' Chambers & Jeremy Taylor), Back to the Future (Dave Roberts, also a partner in Sunrise), Weekend World and World Dance (Anton Le Pirate) held raves in ad hoc countryside locations, with attendances estimated at between 20,000 and 30,000. As The Stone Roses were taking to the stage at Blackpool Empress Ballroom on 12th August 1989, 20,000 people gathered in Longwick, Buckinghamshire, for the biggest Sunrise rave to date. The druggie, collective thump of Britain's homegrown youth revolution sent shivers up the spine of Middle England, and sparked tabloid condemnation. The 1990 Spike Island festival (rows four, five and six) closed with a huge fireworks display (a tradition continued by Oasis at Knebworth), which was tapping into the Acid House culture of pyrotechnics and light shows (this had grounding too in some of the classic festivals; see, for, example, the close of Hendrix's set at the 1970 Atlanta Pop Festival). At Spike Island, The Stone Roses were supported not by contemporary indie bands, but rather a host of DJs and House acts: Dave Booth, Dave Haslam, Ruff & Ready, Frankie Bones, Thomas Mapfumo, The Jam MCs, Gary Clail, Jah Wobble, Doug Wimbish and Paul Oakenfold. In early 1990, The Stone Roses started performing in a large tent, a setting synonymous with the festivals of the Acid House scene. In their discussion with the media in the summer of 1989, The Stone Roses expressed a keen desire to hold a rave, or warehouse party, of their own in London later that year (see for example, Sounds on 12th August 1989, and the NME on 26th August 1989), and had started to give consideration to a handful of sites. For evidence of the ecstatic effect of Acid House, watch the video footage of one particular raver at this Sunrise festival. During 'Let it Roll' by Doug Lazy, one gentleman in crutches finds the music so overpowering that he is no longer inhibited by his injury, and miraculously proceeds to throw some mean shapes !
Third row: Sunrise revellers dancing to Debbie Malone's classic House track, 'Rescue Me'. On 27th January 1990, the 'Freedom To Party' campaign was staged in London in protest against the Entertainments (Increased Penalties) Act of 1990. 10,000 people gathered in Trafalgar Square to hear speeches from the main promoters and DJs. 'Rescue Me' began playing through the sound system, prompting the police to confiscate equipment mid-song. After a 'microphones only' warning was issued to Debbie by the police, one performer started beatboxing, another started humming the song's bassline, and Debbie started singing; within seconds, the rave in the Square was back on. The wording of John Squire's Spike Island promotional artwork (SUNSET SUNDAY) taps into this communal consciousness.
Seventh row: Fans entering the big tent at Glasgow Green, 9th June 1990. A decade later, Radiohead picked up where Glasgow Green left off, by bringing their own 10,000 capacity custom-built tent to each location. The tour included back-to-back shows at Glasgow Green in September 2000.
Eighth row: In the mid '80s, Ian Brown and Reni were regular attendees of DJ Dave Booth's club, The Playpen (now 42nd Street), on Tuesday nights (left). Booth (middle) also ran another key Manchester club of the late '80s, The Hangout (right), with Gino Brandilani. Dave Haslam was a resident DJ for six months here at Isadora's, in the latter half of 1989. A swirling psychedelic show was provided by Paul Clements and Derek Goodwin, with an oil wheel projector spinning lysergic dreams. Headlights, liquid colours, paisley patterns, kaleidoscopic imaging, all accompanied by slides of the Stones, the Doors, Woodstock, Altamont, Performance, Pebbles compilation covers, Six-Five Special, Paul Newman, Johnny Thunders, Pork, Russ Meyer starlets, The Gilded Palace of Sin, and Zero Mostel. Booth knew Brown vaguely from the wider clubbing scene - in particular DeVille's on a Friday night - but their first proper encounter came at a Stone Roses gig, Manchester International, in May 1985. Booth was invigorated by this performance and instantly become their DJ; he would go on to spin the decks at the band's landmark shows: Blackpool, Alexandra Palace and Spike Island.
Ninth row: The Stone Roses were on the same wavelength as the burgeoning Acid House movement, and many a post-rave party of the era was soundtracked by the band's debut LP. In their late 1989 gigs, such as Alexandra Palace, The Stone Roses began to use a throbbing voodoo howl intro tape which mashed together a loop from 'Sport' (from the 1973 album, 'Hustlers Convention', left) by Lightnin' Rod, and Malcolm McLaren's 'Buffalo Gals' (1983). In 1991, New Atlantic sampled this McLaren track on 'Yes to Satan', which became popular among Acid House DJs - for example, Top Buzz used it to open his set at Fantazia, New Years Eve, in 1991 (right). 'Sport' featured in the 1989 John Hughes film, 'Uncle Buck', directly following John Candy punching a clown in the face. U2 quickly followed suit, arriving on stage to 'Television, the Drug of the Nation' by The Disposable Heroes of Hiphoprisy, on their landmark Zoo TV Tour. U2 were clearly working from the Spike Island template when they secured the services of DJ Paul Oakenfold for this world tour. A host of mainstream artists in the nineties would turn to rave's offspring for artistic rejuvenation.
Penultimate row: Acid House was penetrating the charts in 1988 and 1989, as rave anthems gatecrashed the Top 10 with little mainstream radio support; Tim Simenon teamed up with Neneh Cherry for a delicious House-infused Top Ten hit, Buffalo Stance (left), in 1988. The smiley logo, the adopted emblem of Acid House, came to prominence on the front cover of 'Beat Dis' (right, 1987) by Simenon's project, Bomb the Bass. The image was lifted from a blood-splattered murder scene in Alan Moore's graphic novel, Watchmen. Bypassing radio and gaining exposure through nightclubs, Black Box's six weeks at No. 1 (Ride on Time) in 1989 cemented the arrival of dance culture in the charts. It was the biggest hit of the year. During the Lancaster University soundcheck from 8th June 1989, Reni can be heard singing the vocal line from Voodoo Ray, a classic house track from 1988 by A Guy Called Gerald. Ian Brown later sought out the services of Aniff Akinola, co-writer of Voodoo Ray, on Set My Baby Free. This close bond between Indie and House was still residual in 2011 when Ian Brown provided vocals for the Alex Metric / Steve Angello track, Open Your Eyes.
Bottom row: A return of the flare... The gatherers at the Heaton Park shows of summer 2012 tried to reignite the spirit of Spike Island.

Ibiza, a popular Mediterranean tourist destination, became synonymous with dance music and once word spread to Britain about 'Balearic Beat' and the ready supply of Ecstasy, a clubbing utopia was established. Sun-kissed euphoric parties held by DJ Alfredo at Club Amnesia offered a mix of rock, pop, disco and house music. This began to have an influence on the British scene and by late 1987, DJs such as Paul Oakenfold and Danny Rampling were bringing the Ibiza sound to UK clubs. The key ingredient of the 'Second Summer of Love' of 1988 would come from America, where a more sophisticated sound was evolving, moving beyond merely drum loops and short samples. New York witnessed this maturity in the slick production of disco house crossover tracks from artists such as Mateo & Matos. In Chicago, Marshall Jefferson had formed the house 'super group' Ten City (from intensity), demonstrating the developments in 'That's the Way Love Is'. In Detroit there were the beginnings of what would be called techno, with the emergence of Juan Atkins, Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson. The Stone Roses certainly were watching this scene with interest; their first choice to produce their debut LP was not John Leckie - the band had several others in mind before opting for him - including New Order's Peter Hook, and Sly & Robbie. Top of the list, Brown revealed to Mojo in May 2002, was Acid House supremo DJ Pierre (stage name of Nathaniel Pierre Jones), a Chicago born DJ, but he was unavailable. He helped to develop the house music subgenre of Acid House as member of Phuture, whose 1987 EP, Acid Trax, has been cited as the first Acid House recording. Philippe Renaud, a journalist for La Presse in Montreal, states that the term 'Acid House' was coined in Chicago in 1987 to describe the sound of the Roland 303 bass machine, which made its first significant recording appearance on Acid Trax. Manchester's Haçienda nightclub, founded in 1982 by Factory Records, soaked up all of these influences from overseas and became the focal point of the era. An indefatigable creative energy and entrepreneurial spirit permeated the city, with people inventing their own roles - DJs, graphic designers, clothes labels.

The late '80s marked a generational shift in cultural attitudes, according to Dave Haslam, when speaking to Uncut magazine in January 2009: "It did feel like a generational thing. The generation slightly older than us in town seemed much more Stalinist about what was and wasn't allowed. In terms of being very precious and tribal, London was even worse; I remember journalists like Paolo Hewitt refusing to allow that anyone could like both Public Enemy and the Smiths (and Morrissey appearing to agree with him)." The Stone Roses, in pulling together so many strands of inspiration, appealed to a much broader spectrum (ravers, indie kids, psychedelic rock nostalgists, the hip hop fraternity) than any of their Manchester forefathers and served as a nucleus for these previously disparate elements to find common ground with one another. There existed a thriving warehouse party scene in the UK long before it would be given the label 'rave', and in the Manchester area in particular, these parties in disused warehouses were incredibly musically diverse: '80s indie, punk, goth, new wave, northern soul and hip-hop. Importantly, also slowly emerging in this environment were two previously punk-banished strands: shameless disco-pop in the form of house music, and the retro psychedelic delights of Hendrix and Sly and the Family Stone. The Stone Roses were forerunners in establishing the alternative setting of this scene; never particularly keen on the standard gig format, the band staged the city's first warehouse party in July 1985, in a British Railways arch in Fairfield Street, behind Piccadilly Station (another would follow four months later). The Stone Roses, a motley crew at this point, with a speed-fuelled sound and a leather-clad Jesus and Mary Chain-inclined wardrobe were mistaken as a goth outfit. It was not until the latter part of the decade, consuming a heady brew of musical influences, that they would find their identity, exuding a fresh, insouciant verve. The timing of this radical transformation in the band could not have been better, given the fusion of dance and rock culture that was taking place; the band's components - Squire's chiming chordal style, propelling rhythms of fluid, soulful bass grooves and funky drumming, merged with psychedelic-tinged lyrics - all combined to enhance the appeal of what was technically a guitar pop band, to a dance audience. Appearing on The Jo Whiley Show in April 1998, Ian Brown outlined the Roses' design to inject movement in their live audience: "When we used to hit the stage, the intention was to hit the bass drum for the belly, snare drum for the head, hi-hat for the shoulders." Sam King, reviewing The Stone Roses' Manchester Haçienda gig for Sounds in February 1989, described the band as "a post-adolescent love trauma put through a psychedelic mangle and shot out at full volume." The spacey, psychedelic production of John Leckie on the debut LP was ideal for the vast sonic space opened up by ecstasy. Dave Haslam (Uncut magazine, January 2009) identified the Roses and Mondays in that era as having a clear sense of rhythm and space, a key factor distinguishing them from the confined conventions of contemporaries: "...compared to the indie bands of that era like the Wedding Present, say, where the music was very cluttered and uptight. With the Roses and the Mondays it was looser, and Reni was very important in this, a proper hero; he had funkiness." The Stone Roses were a conduit for the classic optimism of the Sixties to connect with the revolutionary idealism of the punk movement, in this new territory of Acid House. Waterfall can be identified as the point where Squire's sound began to metamorphose out of jangly English psychedelia, into its most accomplished form. The baroque breakdown (criminally omitted in the single version), where Squire dispatches a series of hypnotic two and three-note phrases before falling into sync with Reni's shuffling backbeat, is an example of those two players' synergy at its most potent.

The Stone Roses were savvy enough to hire their equivalent of the Happy Mondays' Bez, in the form of Cressa, in order to further the band's association with dance culture. Speaking to This Is The Daybreak, Ian Tilton describes Cressa's influence on the Roses' look: "Cressa's legs appear in the Baldrick's photo I originally took for i-D magazine. He and his mates were the first to re-champion the wearing of flares. Back in '86 they were still really uncool but they had the courage to wear them down the Hac." Manchester, large enough to support a cultural infrastructure, yet small enough to form a community, fused a heady mix of styles from Ibiza, Chicago and Detroit into something tantalizingly new. The age of the vinyl LP was coming to a close and the diverse strands intricately woven by The Stone Roses at this time conveyed a sense of: 'This is the beginning. This is the end. All rock 'n' roll roads lead here'. The band's debut LP served as a melting pot, fusing the spirits of two Summers of Love: the swirling psychedelia of The Byrds and Co, and the earthier escapism of Acid House. Where indie and dance had, in the main, previously mixed like oil and water, Happy Mondays and The Stone Roses were now soaking up American dance and electro sounds at The Haçienda, and taking on board new rhythms (New Order were a key act in this regard). According to Ian Brown (Record Collector, February 1998), he, Mani and Reni - but not John Squire - went to the Haçienda, the Thunderdome and various Acid House clubs in 1988, such as Spectrum, Shoom and Land Of Oz. In the second half of 1988, Mani was going to the Haçienda every night, whereas Ian was going just once or twice a week, in order to focus his energies on the band's debut LP. The Acid House movement carried with it a palpable sense of moral righteousness, of egalitarian zeal - and The Stone Roses fitted the bill: arrogant, anti-authoritarian, the embodiment of all that seemed bright and hopeful in British youth culture. The band's funky musical undercarriage and club-conscious credentials set them apart from most of their contemporaries who also chose the earlier strains of psychedelia for a base camp. The Stone Roses, at this time, were absorbing the Beatles and the Stones and a whole lot else (on which note, I recall a Record Collector interview in which Ian Brown acknowledges to Guy Chadwick the guiding influence of The House of Love's 1988 debut LP). Ecstasy, the hug drug, set the tone for inclusion rather than exclusion. Dave Haslam (Uncut magazine, January 2009) is keen to highlight the two-way relationship between the ecstasy and music of the era: "Maybe ecstasy created the audience for the music as well; even more people stopped worrying about what was acceptable and just trusted their instincts." Amid this dayglo lunacy of Ecstasy, The Stone Roses radiated a kaleidoscopic glow; so too did Primal Scream's heady sonic voyage of 1991, 'Screamadelica' (the front cover of which takes on the form of a damaged sun). Enlisting house DJs Andrew Weatherall and Terry Farley on production duties, the band managed to find common ground between the classic rock of the Stones and the ambience of the House music scene. Following the disappointment of 1994's 'Give Out But Don't Give Up', Primal Scream considered disbanding, but the acquisition of Mani on a free transfer in October 1996 revitalized the group. The bassist would later have the opportunity to tour 'Screamadelica', in 2011, for its 20th anniversary. Speaking in North London in 1989, Ian Brown was keen to see a breakdown of rigid musical barriers: "There is such a breed of people, these psychedelic people that are all walking about and all their record collection is just psychedelic music and they turn their mind off to anything that isn't psychedelic." Primal Scream's Come Together was that philosophy splendiferously set to music. Speaking on The Jo Whiley Show in April 1998, Ian Brown identified how Primal Scream picked up where the Roses left off, himself serving as proselytizer: "I watched them [Primal Scream] take their first Ecstasy one night in Shoom, London, and then they became like a baggy thing. Loaded was like a Fool's Gold dance beat thing." If The Stone Roses were on an Easy Rider trip with their debut LP, Primal Scream took that motorcycle on to the territory of The Wild Angels on 'Screamadelica' (and, after running out of fuel on 'Give Out...', adroitly switched to four wheels with 'Vanishing Point'). On this mindset, ahead of the 2012 Heaton Park shows, Mani was asked if he would play for both Primal Scream and The Stone Roses on the same night, to which he replied, "No. You can't ride two bikes with one arse." Ride sought to fuse the qualities of two eras with their blissful 1992 offering, Twisterella. Filmed in a pub in Levenshulme, Manchester, rave-era dance moves blend seamlessly into an I Can't Explain setting.

 

 

   

 

 

 

She was into the Stones when I was into the Roses...
Top three rows: I've got them moves like Jagger... Ian Brown in 1989 / 90. The fashion of the Second Summer of Love recalled that of the first; in late 1989, Ian looked as if he had been transported from 1967, fusing the long-haired, loose-fitting styles of Mick Jagger and Paul McCartney from that halcyon era. For Ian Brown's fifth solo album, The World is Yours, he sought the services of Paul McCartney to play bass on one of the tracks, but was unsuccessful, as McCartney was too busy at the time. After spending the night in custody for their abstract expressionist attack on Paul Birch, Ian quipped, "It was the worst hotel I've ever stayed in", recalling Mick Jagger's famous retort in similar circumstances. Following Jagger's recent drug conviction, a melodramatic post-trial encounter (fourth row, left) took place in 1967 between The Rolling Stones' frontman and senior British establishment figures to debate youth culture. Rock star and retinue were wafted by helicopter onto the lawn of a stately home, engineered by then World In Action researcher and future Bolshevik Broadcasting Corporation Director-General John Birt, who, decades later, described it as "one of the iconic moments of the Sixties." The Stone Roses were the first band to perform at the Empress Ballroom in Blackpool since The Rolling Stones in 1964. The Rolling Stones were, controversially, banned from playing in the city of Blackpool after a riot broke out at the concert (a ban which was only lifted some 44 years later). Dennis Morris studio shots of The Stone Roses from this era were imbued with the gossamer shimmer of psychedelia, capturing a haze and glow reminiscent of classic Gered Mankowitz sessions with The Rolling Stones. In opting for one-off 'happenings' such as Blackpool Empress Ballroom and Alexandra Palace, The Stone Roses reignited the spirit and excitement of pop's mid-1960s golden age, so much so, that The Rolling Stones offered the band a support slot. The Stone Roses - keener to embody their own era than pay homage to another - were quick to publicly snub 'The Strolling Bones', with Ian Brown explaining to Granada Television, "They said that we could play in Canada with them if we wanted to. We don't want to. We don't wanna warm up for The Rolling Stones in 1989. We consider ourselves more exciting at this moment in time. We consider ourselves more important." In early 1989, The Rolling Stones were inducted into the American Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, and were returning to the fray with 'Steel Wheels.' Mick Jagger and Keith Richards had patched up their relationship, and the subsequent Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tours, encompassing North America, Japan and Europe, saw The Rolling Stones touring for the first time in seven years. Gareth Evans has since claimed that there was no such support slot offer from Mick Jagger, and that the story was fabricated by himself in order to keep The Stone Roses in the press. If true, this was a very shrewd PR move by The Stone Roses' manager. Given, however, that Evans has claimed credit for just about every aspect of the Roses' rise to fame, one would have to approach such a claim with some degree of caution. Evans' self-portrayal in Blood on the Turntables makes Malcolm McLaren's performance in The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle look like a picture of modesty in comparison. Later, as part of The Seahorses, John Squire was much more willing to warm up for The Rolling Stones; The Seahorses supported the band on no fewer than seven occasions over the course of July and August 1998 (In their short existence, The Seahorses provided support for The Rolling Stones, U2, and Oasis, which must have had John's former songwriting partner shaking his head in disapproval). In the summer of 2013, both The Rolling Stones and The Stone Roses would take a trip down memory lane; As part of their 50th anniversary celebrations, the Stones performed two shows at Hyde Park, while the Roses returned to the scene of perhaps their finest hour, Glasgow Green.
Final two rows: Speaking to This Is The Daybreak in 2002, photographer Ian Tilton perceived The Stone Roses' early 1989 look as being very much in the mould of The Who. Townshend, certainly, identified a modern day Keith Moon in the shape of Reni, and the guitarist made moves in 1984 to poach the drum virtuoso, much to the concern of the other Roses. Photographer Steve Double recalls the setting of this February 1989 photoshoot: "I'd been tooling around Manchester with the Roses, picking up a giant print out of one of John Squire's paintings to use as a backdrop and with Mani making a mean brew at his flat when I thought we should do one last set of pix at a location that the band liked. John immediately said 'Let's go up on this station I know [Ardwick rail station, Manchester]'. It later emerged that he was a keen trainspotter ! The lights had just come on and dusk was falling, commuters starting to head home and somehow it felt just perfect to be there with a band that I knew were just about to release one of the greatest albums of the decade." The band (sans Reni) were photographed by Ian Tilton at another Manchester train station, Victoria Station, in April of that year, for CUT Magazine. On this theme, the Sally Cinnamon artwork features a photograph of a steam train's wheels, taken by John Squire's father. On the closing track of his debut solo LP, Squire takes a ride on the InterCity 125. The revolutionized design of this train rekindled Britain's love affair with high-speed. During his time working at Cosgrove Hall, John Squire was trainspotting on a daily basis; due to the studio being situated next to a railway line, work on The Wind in the Willows had to stop at approximately 16:05 each day because a heavy goods train went past and rippled the water on set. British Rail would provide the setting for two Stone Roses warehouse parties in 1985. An artwork from John Squire's 2008 Noise series features a shot of Great Northern Warehouse, the former railway goods warehouse of the Great Northern Railway in Manchester city centre. John's grandfather used to work here, and John photographed the building as it was undergoing renovation.

We learn that the vessel in which our protagonist sails is a brigantine, an appropriate mode of transport for someone 'stealing', given its connotations with piracy. Sunday morning, we discover in the opening verse, is the critical moment of that surge to life (Sunday morning brings the dawn in). As with the opening verse of Going Down, the Resurrection of Jesus on the Third Day (Sunday) is encapsulated with an immediacy here. "Chimes sing Sunday morn" gives an immediate biblical context - the Easter Sunday celebration of Jesus rising from the dead (April Come She Will indeed !). If Christ's persecutors had imagined 'victory' in nailing Him to a cross, Jesus triumphantly "equalised" with His Resurrection. Jesus lifted the lids of His eyes in this glorious moment, breaking what to that point had been the unyielding chains of death. So too does the 'Dover girl' (see below) leave her home, able to 'see' for the first time in a metaphorical sense, through her endeavour to explore. Squire's introductory guitar effect evokes the opening of a tomb, and is followed by a main guitar riff making the sound of Church bells. "She" who will "steal what she never could own" is Jesus, who 'stole' life after death, through His Resurrection. Jesus 'swore' that He would rise again:

Upon Jesus rising from the dead, the angel said to Mary Magdalene and the other Mary:

The rich lyricism of Waterfall recalls She's a Rainbow by The Rolling Stones. According to Ian, Waterfall is:

Britain trips on her love. Ian's presentation of a Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds landscape masks the religious metaphoric overtones of the work. In an interview with Chris Rolfe for a Canadian publication (26th January 1998), Ian reveals that particular effort was made to hide meanings within the debut LP material:

Jesus rose from His tomb - "this hole she calls home" - His temporal resting place. "This hole" works on two levels: Jesus' tomb and a derogatory reference to the previous residence of the 'Dover girl', seeking escape. After greeting Mary Magdalene and the other Mary, Jesus 'raced' ahead of the women and the disciples towards Galilee, to meet them there.

 

"Ibex on the mountain pulling vespers from the West End breezes..."
Top: "Waterfall, don't ever change your ways / Fall with me for a million days / Oh, my waterfall...". The white cascading waters of Shifen waterfall, the broadest waterfall in Taiwan. Deep calls to deep in the roar of your waterfalls; all your waves and breakers have swept over me. (Psalm 42: 7). God's love is an everflowing waterfall, cascading down on each of us every second of our lives. If the mind and heart are closed to the Love of God, an emotional and spiritual lid is formed, through which the water cannot penetrate. If we take off that lid, then our souls would be filled to overflowing: "My cup [it] runneth over" (from the Hebrew Bible, Psalm 23: 5). A demo of Waterfall from 1988 opens with a sample of a waterfall, leading into a 12-string acoustic guitar. Ian would later equate love's unremitting quality to a fountain on his second solo LP.
Second row (left): Tomb of Jesus, inside the Aedicule. Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem.
Second row (right): 'Scenes from the Passion of Christ' (1470 - 71) by Hans Memling (c. 1430 - 1494). Rather like a painting showing various stages of the Passion of Christ within its frame, Waterfall does not follow an instantly identifiable chronological order; the first image presented to us in the song is the Resurrection of Christ, followed, in a later verse, by His crucifixion.
Third row: 'Return from Calvary' by Herbert Schmalz. One long, dark cloud hangs over the city like a pall. The song moves from the hills of time to the sands of time (see below) in its final stages. "The hills as old as time" works with the phrase "As old as the hills", which derives from Job 15: 7. The lyric's immediate placement after reference to the "steeple pine" trains the eye towards the Calvary landscape. Charles Rohault de Fleury, a French architect who devoted the last years of his life to religious archaeology, wrote in Les instruments de la Passion (1870) that upon "a microscopic examination of the fragments of the Cross scattered through the world in the form of relics reveals the fact that it was made from a pine-tree." See also Isaiah 60: 13.
Bottom: Eighteen hundred years earlier, Abraham too was put to the test making sacrifice. The Eucharist is the fulfilment, the pure sacrificial offering that mankind makes to God the Father, stretching back to Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his only beloved son. Early in the morning, Abraham saddles his donkey, taking with him two of his servants and his son Isaac, and on the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place from afar. Leaving the servants, to whom they make a promise of return, father and son - now carrying the wood of the sacrifice on his back - proceed to the altar of sacrifice, where Isaac will be bound and tied up. The setting is Mount Moriah, the hills of what would become Jerusalem, where Jesus would ride to the place of sacrifice on a donkey. Isaac questioned his father and obeyed (Gen 22: 7), just as Jesus would later do on the Mount of Olives (Luke 22: 7; 22: 42). Abraham in obedience was willing to offer his son, believing that God could raise him from the dead, and figuratively speaking, he did receive Isaac back from death. (Heb 11: 19; Acts 3: 15). Instead, a ram in a thicket of thorns, later a lamb in a crown of thorns, is brought to the altar of sacrifice in the place of man. For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life.

Waterfall moves in reverse chronology, from Resurrection to Crucifixion, from Easter Sunday to Good Friday, from the tomb to the steeple pine. Here is the church (of the Waterfall) and here is the steeple. Christ stands before Pontius Pilate, Prefect of Tiberius, in Palestine. Jesus was "soon to be put to the test, whipped by the winds of the West" - the Roman Empire. Here, through the machinations of the religious authorities, we have the power of the State being used against Christ, Caesar versus Christ. It is worth noting that the imagery presented in the song, the crucifixion of Jesus conflated with an attack on America, is not without very close precedent. The video for 'Kill Surf City' by The Jesus and Mary Chain, the b-side of their 'April Skies' single (April 1987), shows 'Jesus' taking shots at the Stars and Stripes.

 

 

 

Sacrifice myself to you. Sacrifice...
Top left: April Skies by The Jesus and Mary Chain. The image on the cover is a still from the 'Kill Surf City' video.
Top right: John Squire rehearsing for the Roses' Top Of The Pops appearance, November 1989, wearing a self-designed 'crucifix shirt'.
Middle: 'Jesus' obliterates an American flag in the 'Kill Surf City' video.
Bottom: "Gotta get a car, got Jesus on my side...". The backdrop, seen here on the left, in The Jesus and Mary Chain video, 'Sidewalking', is from the finale of the 1963 Kenneth Anger film, Scorpio Rising. John Squire immersed himself in the music of The Jesus and Mary Chain, whose striking incorporation of religious themes and iconography would inspire his own with The Stone Roses. "I took a lot of ideas from the Mary Chain," the guitarist later admitted (source: Richard Purden, Scottish Catholic Observer).

The final verse evokes imagery of Judgement Day, where 'She', a Gnostic theme of the song, holds aloft the scales of Judgement. The "shifting sands" on which a Themis-like figure stands, conveys our Judge in an hourglass setting, an allusion to the sands of time running out until the day of Judgement.

 

An hourglass grain of sand...
Top left: "A desert rose, cascading waterfalls. The sands of time will blow my mind...".
Top right: Themis, the Greek goddess of law and public assembly, is a traditional symbol at U.S. and U.K. courthouses. A blindfold was later added, to denote impartial justice.
Bottom: The scales of justice on top of the Old Bailey in London. This features on the cover artwork of The Clash's 'This Is England' single (see further up page). The discussed verse of Waterfall focuses not on the Statue of Liberty, but on the statue of Justice; however, the inspiration for such a majestic figure being suspended in sand may have been the former, in the defining image of Planet Of The Apes, a film which Ian watched rather obsessively at the time.

Vermeer used potent symbolism in 'Woman Holding a Balance' (c.1664), in which a Madonna-like woman holds a delicate - and empty - balance; behind her hangs a painting of Christ's Last Judgement in a heavy black frame. The woman's head obscures the place where Saint Michael customarily would be weighing souls in the balance, while the figure of Christ appears immediately above her head. The central vanishing point of the painting occurs at the woman's fingertips, with the little finger of her right hand echoing the horizontal arm of the balance and picture frame. On the table before her lie earthly treasures, pearls (these can also represent purity) and a gold chain. Behind her, Christ passes final judgement on the human race. The mirror on the wall is symbolic of vanity or self-knowledge, while a soft light raking across the picture sounds a spiritual note. The serene, contemplative woman, dressed in the traditional blue clothing of Mary, and seemingly expecting child (those who argue against this interpretation emphasize that her costume - a short jacket, a bodice, and a thickly padded skirt - reflects a style of dress current in the early to mid 1660s), stands in the centre of all of this, calmly weighing transitory worldly concerns against spiritual ones. One of the four Horsemen of the Apocalypse carried a pair of scales, as portrayed in Albrecht Dürer's 'The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse' (1498). In Judgement, Jesus is depicted as "sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." (Matthew 26: 64). Shown below are two portrayals: 'Christ the Judge' by Fra Angelico, and Michelangelo's portrayal of Christ in 'The Last Judgement' from the Sistine Chapel. Waterfall places Christ within the sand of an hourglass, in keeping with the scene of the song - the progression from land to sea by the boat of the 'Dover girl'. This idea would later be resurrected by Noel Gallagher on Champagne Supernova. One night, Noel and his then-girlfriend Meg Matthews returned to Meg's house after a date, and Noel noticed a peculiar sugar jar in her kitchen. This Alessi Gianni jar can be found in the CD booklet of '(What's The Story) Morning Glory ?', on the page containing the 'Champagne Supernova' lyrics. A small plastic man hangs from the lid, just above the level of sugar in the jar. While studying this figure, the lyric, "Someday you will find me caught beneath the landslide" formed in Noel's mind, and Champagne Supernova was quickly penned in Meg's kitchen. From the same Oasis album, the lyric from 'Hey Now !', "And time as it stands won't be held in my hands", I propose, is a re-write of this Waterfall lyric. As illustrated towards the end of this page******, such appropriation is a feature of various lyrics by Noel Gallagher, and I think in this instance, he is substituting 'scales' with a timepiece. On this note, I seem to recall Noel admitting in an interview that 'Up In the Sky' was formed around the Waterfall riff, only sped up.

 

 

Top left: 'Christ the Judge' (1447) by Fra Angelico, Chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
Top right: Detail of 'The Last Judgement' (1536 - 1541) by Michelangelo.
Bottom left: 'Woman Holding a Balance' (c.1664) by Jan Vermeer.
Bottom right: Detail of Albrecht Dürer's 'The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse' (1498) showing one of the horsemen carrying a pair of scales.

Waterfall was recorded twice, firstly at Battery Studios, London - where John Leckie felt that it was a little too fast - and subsequently at Rockfield Studios, Wales (thus, there is another version lying around in the vaults somewhere). When asked at what point the band's standard of songwriting began to improve, Ian Brown cited Waterfall as being of great significance, telling Uncut magazine, "'Waterfall' was the first time we went, 'Wow, this is it.'":

The band's first live TV performance came in January 1989 at Granada Studios, Quay Street, Manchester. Here, The Stone Roses performed Waterfall on 'The Other Side Of Midnight', hosted by Tony Wilson, who had previously passed on the chance of managing the band. His introduction contains an admission of error for failing to recognise their potential earlier. Wilson's researcher had been urging him to have the Roses on the show, but he expressed no interest; this was until one night, backstage with the Happy Mondays in Chester, Gary Whelan played him Elephant Stone on a cassette player - and he was suitably impressed.******* Ian Tilton's shots from this performance were used by Squire for the sleeve of the debut LP.

'April Come She Will' by Simon & Garfunkel is another reference point, as Ian Brown explained to Q magazine in 2000:

 

 

Rows one to three: Stylistically, The Stone Roses' debut would sit well in a record store, side by side with Fifth Dimension by The Byrds. This Byrds LP, the band's third, marked a genuine change in their creative self-determination. This is signalled by the switch from Western-block typeface to resplendent Paisley for the band's name, on the magic carpet album cover.
Fourth row: This photoshoot in Germany from June 1990 has the qualities of a Karl Ferris projection. A photographer to the 'British Rock Elite' - Eric Clapton, Cream, Donovan, The Hollies and Jimi Hendrix - Ferris was one of the principal innovators of psychedelic photography.
Bottom left: The Byrds. Chestnut Mare by The Byrds is often cited by Squire and Mani as a particular favourite - the middle eight of Love Is The Law is unquestionably of this terrain.
Bottom right: Simon & Garfunkel. The influence of 'April Come She Will' is particularly evident on the earlier, speedier demos of Waterfall.

'There Goes the Fear', from 'The Last Broadcast', The Doves' second LP, owes a significant debt to Waterfall. So too does the prominent throbbing bass on Kasabian's 'Processed Beats' (a mashup was subsequently made), from their Madchester-tinged debut album. Waterfall has featured in the films 'Green Street' (starring Elijah Wood) and 'There's Only One Jimmy Grimble' (starring Robert Carlyle).

 

Left: 'The Last Broadcast' is the second album by Doves, released in April 2002.
Right: 'Processed Beats' is from Kasabian's eponymous debut album (September 2004).

* In his youth, Squire built a monument to Joe Strummer in his bedroom. A later piece, 'Rotten 2c' (2004), portraying Strummer's contemporary, Johnny Rotten (then appearing on 'I'm A Celebrity, Get Me Out Of Here !'), would, from literal interpretation its title (Rotten to see), appear to express that Squire was unimpressed by the punk figure's venture into reality TV. Punk and indie's finest frontmen hawking products ranging from Adidas to Country Life butter. What next ? It's Keith Moon for Snickers...
** With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of Communism in 1989, America's influence overseas was to increase further; Capitalism now had no ideological opposition. This is why historian Niall Ferguson argues in 'Colossus: the rise and fall of the American empire' that 11/9 (9 November 1989) rather than 9/11 (11 September 2001) was the real turning point in American foreign policy. Following the collapse of the Berlin wall, America had no identifiable 'enemy'. Saddam Hussein soon filled this void with his invasion of Kuwait on 2nd August 1990. He was to be the focus of two Gulf wars fought by America and her allies: (1990 - 1991) and (2003). While the previous century was characterised by the polarity of communism versus capitalism, the beginning of the twenty-first century has witnessed a ferocious escalation in Islamic terrorism, heightening tension between the world's two largest religions (Christianity and Islam).
*** T. C. W. Blanning, Short Oxford history of Europe: the nineteenth century 1789 - 1914 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 247.
**** Britpop is the term given to the British alternative rock movement which reached its peak between 1994 and 1996. Characterised by bands drawing heavily upon '60s and '70s influences, its output created the soundtrack to the lives of a new generation of British youth. This period also witnessed the emergence of a multicultural British pop, focused firmly on the present rather than a gilded past. Drum 'n' bass, a genre characterised by fast tempo broken beat drums with heavy, often intricate basslines, broke through and the angst-sodden beats of Massive Attack came to reflect the millennial mood. The movement's 'capital' was Camden, where Noel Gallagher, Blur, Pulp and a host of other key figures from the scene would often congregate. Noel Gallagher, unlike The Stone Roses, was unconcerned about making it from Manchester and moved to London in 1993. His timing could not have been better, because Indie music's centre of gravity had shifted from Manchester to London, largely due to the impact of Suede. The Good Mixer, just off the High St in Camden Town, soon became Britpop's early HQ. The Stone Roses' work is distinct from the Britpop body of work in that Britpop's defining songs were marked by social commentaries, often ironic or cynical, such as Blur's 'Girls and Boys' and 'Country House', Oasis' 'Cigarettes & Alcohol', and Pulp's 'Common People'. In contrast, The Stone Roses' conceptually complex debut offering was imbued with innocent romanticism and hermetic idealism. To take the example of the aforementioned Oasis track, this showcased the appeal of cigarettes, alcohol, drugs and hedonism as a remedy to the banality of working class life; lyrics such as "Is it worth the aggravation to find yourself a job when there's nothing worth working for ?" tapped into the mood of British working class youth in the mid-1990s ('Girls and Boys' by Blur contained much the same message - "Avoiding all work 'cause there's none available.") The erroneous lump categorization of The Stone Roses with their immediate successors overlooks key inherent elements within the former: the songwriting partnership of The Stone Roses were (effectively) teetotal, one-time members of the Socialist Workers Party, immersed in text ranging from the Bible to Albert Camus. When Ian and John were asked in a 1989 Transmission interview, "What gives you the greatest buzz ?", a typically laconic John quips, "Sex", and a lengthy silence ensues. Ian then coyly remarks to John, "You're supposed to say Ecstasy though, John. That's what they want." Had this very same question been put five years later to the leading lights of the Britpop scene, one could predict with a strong degree of certainty the typical responses that would promptly fill such a void in conversation. A cartoonish version of Madchester would live on, in Oasis; the band's debut LP, Definitely Maybe, as Noel Gallagher was keen to remind the media, was about "shagging, drinking and taking drugs." Asked by Rolling Stone magazine in May 1996, "Are Oasis in fact hard-drinking, groupie-shagging, drug-snorting geezers ?", Noel leant back in his chair and smiled contentedly: "Yeah." The Stone Roses cast a long shadow over the hedonistic '90s, yet, all in their late 20s by the time of their debut album release, were more a product of the Spartan and politically embattled '80s. The halcyon period of The Stone Roses - from mid 1987 to the summer of 1990 - featured a blend of aching vulnerability and socialist revolutionary ire, largely absent from the bands who came in their wake. One would be inclined to venture away from the meat-and-potatoes rock of Oasis towards a band on the fringes of the anti-intellectualism Britpop scene, the bookish and politically hard left Manic Street Preachers, to find a band of distinct commonality with The Stone Roses. This vein of work contrasted greatly with an anthemic Britpop release such as Girls and Boys; Damon Albarn was inspired by a holiday in Magaluf to pen commentary upon the rampant laddish 18-30 Club Med culture of the '90s:

 

 

 

 

 

Top: 'Modern Life Is Rubbish', Blur's second album, was released in May 1993. The announcement of the album's release included a press photo featuring the phrase, 'British Image 1' spraypainted behind the band - who were dressed in a mixture of mod and skinhead attire - and a pitbull. At the time, such imagery was viewed as nationalistic and racially insensitive by the British music press; to allay concerns, Blur subsequently released the 'British Image Number 2' photo, which was "a camp restaging of a pre-war aristocratic tea party."
Second row (left): Damon's newfound interest in football helped popularise the sport; interest in dog racing peaked too, with the release of the band's 1994 album, 'Parklife.'
Second row (right): Liam Gallagher and Damon Albarn square up at the Soccer Six football tournament, Mile End Stadium, London, 12th May 1996.
Third row (left): 'cause when it comes on top ! .... Cigarettes and alcohol.
Third row (right): The Good Mixer, Arlington Road, Camden Town.
Fourth row (left): Massive Attack.
Fourth row (right) and fifth row (left): While a host of bands were to take inspiration from The Stone Roses' breakthrough in 1989, the only band to carry on a truly revolutionary zeal and punk spirit was the Manic Street Preachers (when they were a four-piece). Nicky Wire, speaking in 1996, affirmed this influence: "Although people might not think it, The Stone Roses did have a lasting influence on us when we started. They were people we defined ourselves against." The Welsh outfit provided support for The Stone Roses at Wembley Arena, in December 1995, and Ian Brown collaborated with the band in 2001, on Let Robeson Sing.
Fifth row (right): Rockin' in Havana like a Manic Street Preacher, preacher, preacher, preacher, preacher.... Indeed, the front cover artwork of the Manic Street Preachers debut LP, Generation Terrorists, would not look out of place if transposed onto the Roses' own debut, with its fusion of religion and insurrection (bottom row photos). The Manic Street Preachers would pick up on many of the themes explored by The Stone Roses; 'Repeat (Stars and Stripes)' sees the band on an anti-monarchy tirade, while the writing of Attila Kotanyi and Raoul Vaneigem feature in the LP sleeve: "Modern capitalism, organising the reduction of all social life to a spectacle, cannot offer any spectacle other than that of our own alienation." At one point, the Manic Street Preachers had given consideration to having a sandpaper sleeve that would scratch the album itself, as well as anything else that it was shelved by (see Bye Bye Badman). 'Repeat (Stars and Stripes)' called upon the services of Public Enemy production team, The Bomb Squad, anticipating The Stone Roses' own move into this territory on Begging You. In the presentation of childhood photos of the band in the Second Coming sleeve, The Stone Roses may have been taking their cue from The Holy Bible, released four months previously.

Britpop's commodification of rave and indie strands would engender the rise of unabashed lad culture (football, lager & 'birds'), exemplified by Loaded magazine and FHM. Speaking to The Face in March 1995, Ian Brown was keen to distance himself from this knuckle-dragging facet of the movement: "I think lad culture is really dangerous. What is it ? Just drinking beer and falling on the floor." The Stone Roses were very much going against the grain with this attitude, one which carried on from their own heyday: "Most bands are into it so as to have a license to get pissed and shout at girls from van windows. The whole idea of that appals me." (Ian Brown, Melody Maker, June 1989). Time seems to have rewritten the band's ethos, with the abhorrent 2013 Mat Whitecross film, Spike Island, crassly casting The Stone Roses' generation as uncouth Inbetweeners forerunners dressed like Oasis rejects. Spike Island for the Jägerbomb generation. The Shane Meadows documentary from the same year takes a wrong turn from the outset and never recovers, opting for a fandom-oriented kitchen sink realism more befitting of The Smiths. Just for anyone under the impression that Spike Island was a veritable Adidas-trackie-wearing 'oi oi' Lad Bible gathering, Chief Inspector Phil Cunningham said he "could not praise fans' behaviour enough" according to the reports of the day. If you wish to see a cringeworthy display of laddism affectation, observe Colin Murray's behaviour on the Oasis DVD, 'Lock the Box'. In the company of the Gallagher brothers, this oxygen thief morphs into an all-cursing (at gleaning one smidgen of information about Don't Look Back in Anger, Murray announces that he'll "have that spread round fucking Britain"), all-smoking, all-drinking lawd, with even the accent and cadence of his voice undergoing transformation. Murray's flagrant attempt at cutting it with the big boys had shades of Robbie Williams shaking a tambourine with Oasis at Glastonbury in 1995, in a desperate bid to gain acceptance into the rock 'n' roll fold. All of which begs the question: what mutation might we witness in the presenter, were he, theoretically, to spend an evening in the company of the Kray twins ? (But then nature didn't make him that way !). The Gallagher brothers personified lad culture from the outset, whereas Damon Albarn was motivated to shed his intellectual skin in order to fit with the times: "I started out reading Nabokov. Now I'm into football, dog racing and Essex girls." Underworld's Born Slippy .NUXX, featured on the 1996 'Trainspotting' soundtrack, became a defining hedonistic anthem ("Babes and babes and babes and babes and babes. And remembering nothing boy...Shouting lager lager lager lager"). The Acid House movement at the end of Thatcher's tenure has been largely credited with the distinct drop in hooligan activity in football. Whereas Thatcher was strongly at odds with football, given its association with hooliganism, the sport suddenly became credible among the professional and media classes. Many a politician hereafter would feign a Roger Nouveau-style football allegiance to appeal to the common man. In 1995, Tony Blair could be seen doing headers with Kevin Keegan and in 1996, the Labour Party leader drew upon England's Euro '96 anthem, 'Three Lions', at a Labour Party conference speech: "Seventeen years of hurt. Never stopped us dreaming. Labour's coming home". 'Girl Power' - a term appropriated by Geri Halliwell from the 1995 Shampoo single of this title - came to the fore with The Spice Girls' 1997 Brits performance of 'Who Do You Think You Are'. The Spice Girls were integral to instituting a change in the charts away from Britpop, towards out-and-out pop. They saw off competition from Oasis, who were nominated for Best Single with 'Don't Look Back in Anger'. Earlier in the day, Liam Gallagher said he would not be coming to the awards, lest he "chin one of the Spice Girls." Upon receiving their award onstage, Mel C (aka Sporty Spice) pointed to her chin and shouted, "Come and have a go Liam if you think you're hard enough", exemplifying an era of 'laddishness' in both sexes of pop music - the ladette was born. Only a year before, at the previous Brits, Oasis had delivered a similar put-down to Blur. Oasis were notorious for their Beatles fixation but it was to be Ginger, Sporty, Scary, Baby and Posh - and not the Gallagher brothers' outfit - who were to become the most widely recognised group of individuals since John, Paul, George and Ringo.

 

Left: Liam Gallagher and Robbie Williams at Glastonbury, 1995. Robbie Williams, formerly of hugely successful boyband, Take That, jumped on the Oasis bandwagon and joined them onstage at Glastonbury, in 1995, performing a 'Bez' role. This fleeting friendship between the two would later deteriorate, however, and subsequent years would see a series of entertaining personal spats develop.
Right: The Spice Girls collecting their awards for Best Single ('Wannabe') and Best Video ('Say You'll Be There') at the 1997 Brit Awards. With the success of such manufactured groups as The Spice Girls, pop subsequently turned into a talent contest.

The majority of the Britpop movement played out under the premiership of the Conservative Party's John Major; keen to associate itself with 'Cool Britannia', Tony Blair's New Labour would ride the coat-tails of this cultural phenomenon into Downing Street in May 1997. Inspirational sparks flew from the synergy between pop, politics, film, art and culture and the phrase was quickly adopted in the media and advertising, seeming to capture the 'It' quality of London at the time. The movement exercised a brief period of cultural hegemony, with Trainspotting boasting a Britpop-centric soundtrack (featuring Blur, Elastica, Pulp and Sleeper). Locked out by the established galleries, younger artists looked to the acid house scene as a template, setting up shop in East London's empty warehouses. The YBAs (Young British Artists) co-opted much of their stance from British pop (in a meeting of minds, Blur's Country House video was directed by Damien Hirst). Blair's government was elected on a platform of modernisation and the Prime Minister's relative youth gave the idea fresh currency. Pictures of the Prime Minister with a Fender Stratocaster identified Blair with the movement, and his desire to infiltrate the culture was demonstrated further when a host of celebrities, including Noel Gallagher (above), were invited to Number 10 upon Labour's arrival in power. Those not adhering to script were quickly put in their place by the new regime; Damon Albarn, who refused an invitation to attend, questioned whether it was the right signal for a future Prime Minister to be sending his children to a grant-maintained school, and received a letter saying, "Don't talk about this." Albarn had previously flirted with Labour, having been summoned to the Commons to meet John Prescott and Tony Blair in 1995, but he was soon to become disillusioned with the realisation of New Labour's plans. Oasis were keener to attach themselves to this harbinger of a new Britain, with Noel declaring at the 1996 Brit Awards, "There are seven people in this room giving a little bit of hope to young people in this country", proceeding to name-check the five members of his band, Creation Records' Alan McGee and Tony Blair. "And if you've got anything about you, get up there and shake Tony Blair's hand. He's the Man." This relationship solidified further with the Oasis songwriter's visit to Number 10; each will undoubtedly have recognised the parallels with the relationship between The Beatles and then Labour Leader and Prime Minister, Harold Wilson in the mid 1960s. Wilson exhibited his populist touch in 1965, when he nominated The Beatles with the award of MBE. The award was popular with the youth in society and created the image that the Prime Minister was 'in touch' with the younger generation, cementing Wilson's image as a modernistic leader and linking him to the burgeoning pride in the 'New Britain' typified by The Beatles. Similarly, New Labour surfed the 'Britpop' zeitgeist cannily and were a skilful operator of the media. As far back as the 1980s, Neil Kinnock had tried to wrest the Union Jack from the Tories, to redefine patriotism as something other than Queen, country, stately homes and 'the heritage industry'. New Labour quickly realised that the new Anglo-centric pop climate was doing the job for them, and could help marshal the youth vote into the bargain.

   

 

Top left: Leader of the Opposition, Harold Wilson presents The Beatles with Silver Hearts at the Variety Club Show Business Awards, March 1964. The soon-to-be Prime Minister recommended to the Queen that The Beatles be made MBEs - the first pop stars to be honoured in such a way. Top centre, the band are pictured leaving Buckingham Palace with their awards in October 1965.
Top right: Pop and politics were now of one accord. Tony Blair meets Noel Gallagher at 10 Downing Street, 30th June 1997. Gallagher received much criticism for this, since it conflicted with the 'working class hero' status championed in his body of work. Johnny Marr quite rightly identifies this celebratory coming together of Britpop and politics not as embodying Blair's Britain and New Labour, but rather as the absolute culmination of Thatcher's Britain. With its overt revelry in champagne and cocaine consumption, and pompous display of wealth, Marr argues that it was "the children of Thatcher running wild and doing what the Thatcher era espoused." (Source: BBC '90s Pop music Documentary). This love-in between pop and party politics was to prove short-lived however and the music press were quick to spearhead the backlash; within the year, the NME ran a cover featuring Tony Blair and the headline, 'Ever had the feeling you've been cheated ?' This (Johnny Rotten inspired) headline argued that the youth, particularly students, had been duped. In contrast to the two pictured bands, The Stone Roses had absolutely no desire to have allegiance with either royalty or government. Asked by Melody Maker in June 1989 what they would do if they were awarded MBEs, Ian and John were indignant in their response: "Thrown 'em back." (Squire). "Stuff 'em up their arses, very hard. British Empire ! A bunch of public school boys playing about. They still give 'em out, don't they, and there's no British Empire anymore." (Brown). Instead, the attitude of The Stone Roses to Queen and Country was more closely aligned with that of the Sex Pistols, whose visits to Buckingham Palace or the Houses of Parliament were designed for the purpose of mockery and subterfuge, rather than deference. It comes as little surprise to read, in the 2012 Simon Spence biography, War and Peace, that Gareth Evans at one time had plans afoot to infiltrate royal residency. The ever-opportunistic manager was circulating rumours in 1990 that The Stone Roses were planning a secret show for 100,000 people outside Buckingham Palace.
Bottom left: While Paul McCartney and George Harrison proudly sported their MBEs on the sleeve of 'Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band', John Lennon refused to be pictured with the award he would later return to Buckingham Palace in protest at British involvement in Biafra. Instead, John was seen wearing six medals that he borrowed from the family of original Beatle drummer, Pete Best. Lennon, a fan of military paraphernalia, remembered the medals from when The Beatles played at the Casbah Club which was run by Pete's mother, Mona. Long after Best had been replaced as drummer by Ringo Starr, John called Best's mother Mona out of the blue to ask if he could borrow the medals for the cover shoot with artist Peter Blake. The medals, which are thought to have belonged to Pete's father John, all date from the Second World War. John wears 6 medals: a mini-MBE, 3 gold stars, and two silver heads. Note that unlike George and Paul's MBEs (bottom right), which are civilian, John's mini-MBE is military. Lennon's note accompanying the gong in 1969 read: "Your Majesty, I am returning this in protest against Britain's involvement in the Nigeria-Biafra thing, against our support of America in Vietnam, and against Cold Turkey slipping down the charts. With love. John Lennon of Bag."

'Cool Britannia' was to 'Britpop' what the catchphrase 'Swinging London' was to the early years of Wilson's Labour government, a cultural parallel best illustrated by the Vanity Fair headline (above) with Patsy Kensit and Liam Gallagher: "London Swings Again!". Chris Evans' weekly variety show, TFI Friday, part of the televisual arm of Britpop, used Ocean Colour Scene's 'The Riverboat Song' to introduce guests. 'Shooting Stars' utilised large 'Mod' logos as part of the set and featured many prominent Britpop musicians as guests. The leading acts of the Britpop era all drew heavily from the imagery and sounds of the 1960s. Patrick Macnee, the actor who played John Steed in the 1960s television series, The Avengers, made an appearance in Oasis' 'Don't Look Back in Anger' video, while Blur's Damon Albarn struck up a close relationship with The Kinks' Ray Davies, with the two performing a duet of 'Waterloo Sunset'. In this respect, Blur were key in introducing another critical element of the Britpop movement, a mod-influenced 1960s view of English life, portrayed through a clear lyrical narrative, which had been largely missing from the preceding 'shoegazing' and 'Madchester' scenes. Paul Weller had been an exponent of this approach a decade earlier (on tracks such as The Jam's 'That's Entertainment' and 'Town Called Malice'), and enjoyed a career resurgence in the Britpop era with his 1995 solo album, 'Stanley Road', and guest appearance on Oasis' 'Champagne Supernova'.

Blur laid the blueprint for this as early as their April 1993 single, 'For Tomorrow'. The year before the single was released, the band reached their lowest point. They were prone to giving drunken and loose performances and being far outclassed by other bands such as early rivals, Suede. In this period, they embarked on a U.S. tour when the country was in the midst of the grunge era; audiences were unreceptive to their sound and the band detested the experience. Parts of England at the time were seemingly undergoing a mass Americanised refit, and caught in this curtural twilight zone, Albarn began to write songs in a classic English vein. 'For Tomorrow' was one such song, written on Christmas Day, 1992. The video, directed by Julien Temple, was filmed in a classic black and white style and opens with Albarn in typical British clothing, lying afloat in the Thames. Shot entirely in London, it switches between scenery from Trafalgar Square, Nelson's Column and Primrose Hill. One could weave a thread between the Dover girl at the wheel on Waterfall, to the "twentieth century girl with her hands on the wheel" on 'For Tomorrow', with each feminine figure taking on America. The single front cover of 'For Tomorrow', showing two World War Two fighter planes, added further a sense of Britishness and national pride to the release. The band's 'Parklife' album became the quintessential Britpop album: confident, upbeat, yet containing an inherent cynicism and knowingness about English life. It also defined Britpop's iconography; despite being a primarily middle class outfit, the band shrewdly drew upon imagery from working class life: dog tracks, ice cream vans and package holidays. This British pride was embodied in the Parklife video, which featured spoken verses by actor Phil Daniels, who had starred in 'Quadrophenia'. Sleeper's 'Inbetweener' video positioned the band in a supermarket (with a guest appearance by Supermarket Sweep's Dale Winton) and laundrette, while in Pulp's 'Common People' video, Jarvis Cocker is pushed around a supermarket by Sadie Frost, an English actress (the single front cover featured the band in a greasy spoon cafe, eating establishments which became a badge of working class identity in this era). Blur, Oasis and Pulp were the premier acts of Britpop and Louise Wener aptly summarises the situation for those Britpop acts hanging on to the coattails of 'the big three'. Suede were close to this 'big three', but their admirable refusal to conform to a 'Britpop stereotype' in this era, hindered their chances of selling at a level on a par with Blur and Oasis:

 

 

Top left: Phil Daniels and Damon Albarn in Blur's Parklife video.
Top right: Seeking to counteract the dominance of Grunge, Albarn and his contemporaries naturally sought inspiration from the social commentary that had defined some of the best British music of the 1960s. Albarn found a winning formula in the Kinksian character study trail blazed by Ray Davies.
Bottom left: Waterloo Sunset by Cathy Dennis (1996).
Bottom right: Paul Weller, Stanley Road.

***** John Harris, The last party (London: Fourth Estate, 2003), p. xvii. The key 'anti-influence' on the Britpop movement was Grunge. In the wake of the American invasion led by Nirvana, Alice in Chains, Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, British acts were thrown on the defensive. America threw down the gauntlet and Britain formed its response in Britpop. A generation of Brits came of age in the mid '90s, who harboured resentment that America had enjoyed this unchallenged cultural hegemony. The contrast between 1994's 'Live Forever' by Oasis and the Nirvana b-side of the same year, 'I Hate Myself and Want to Die' (a title which Cobain had previously considered giving to the band's third studio album, 'In Utero') could not have been greater. One important mainstay trait which Oasis carried on from The Stone Roses was a life-affirming positivity (Wake up ! There's a new day dawning). This had been embodied by the sanguine Stone Roses frontman, stating in a 1989 TV interview, "I don't have time for negative thinking. Positive thinking brings its own rewards", and latched on to by Noel Gallagher: "Live Forever was written in the middle of grunge and all that, and I remember Nirvana had a tune called 'I Hate Myself and I Want to Die', and I was like 'Well, I'm not fucking having that.' As much as I fucking like him [Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain] and all that shit, I'm not having that. I can't have people like that coming over here, on smack, fucking saying that they hate themselves and they wanna die. That's fucking rubbish. Kids don't need to be hearing that nonsense. Seems to me that here was a guy who had everything, and was miserable about it. And we had fuck-all, and I still thought that getting up in the morning was the greatest fuckin' thing ever, 'cause you didn't know where you'd end up at night. And we didn't have a pot to piss in, but it was fucking great, man." ('Lock the Door', Stop the Clocks bonus DVD, 2006). Cobain committed suicide in April 1994 and his image featured in the U.S. 'Live Forever' music video. Whereas the first Stone Roses LP emitted sunshine and colour, the second took on an altogether darker mood. This was wholly reflective of the band's fragmented state in the mid '90s, with a despondency setting in, particularly emanating from Reni. Not before 9T4 would he wear the Roses' hat again. Ian's focus has consistently been to uplift ("If you see someone falling, pick them up. Physically and metaphysically", Heaton Park 2012) and inspire (No one alive can lock the door to your dreams), and the dichotomy in outlook between himself and an adjacent downbeat Reni at The Stone Roses' reunion press conference in 2011 is fascinating to watch. The nervous energy is palpable, and at one point, Reni reports that Ian and Mani are sounding good in rehearsals, but John and himself are "pretty rusty". This is quickly disputed by both Ian and Mani, keen to give the impression that all four players are on form and fighting fit for their comeback. At another juncture in the conference, Reni again goes on a dispirited tract and Ian swiftly interjects, "This is a great day for all positive thinkers." This world of contrast between Brown and Reni is most pronounced in their sequence of overlapping answers given to the question from The Quietus at the conference. A communication breakdown between Brown and an increasingly erratic Reni, as detailed here, was critical in the chain of events leading to the band's disintegration. The personalities of each member of the group are wonderfully captured, almost caricature-like, in their walk-on entrance to Stoned Love, at Warrington's comeback gig of May 2012. Mani leaps onto the stage, with much 'Let's 'ave it' rousing of the crowd; Ian performs a nifty dance routine from side to side; an oblivious John strolls nonchalantly in a ghost-like fashion towards his side of the stage, while Reni takes his place on the drumstool, almost unnoticed.

   

Left: Smells Like Teen Spirit guillotined off the era. In 1989, The Stone Roses re-set the musical compass so that it seemed to permanently point North. Expenses forms for journalists at the time were dominated by train fares to Manchester, a healthy shift for Britain's all too London-centric cultural life. In 1991, the music press turned its attention from Manchester to Seattle, from The Stone Roses to Nirvana.
Right: Blur's Song 2 video, their biggest hit in America, was a near-parody of grunge.

****** Noel Gallagher has stated in interviews that "He lives under a waterfall," from Oasis's 'Supersonic', is a nod to The Stone Roses' Waterfall. In Paul Du Noyer's 'Liverpool: Wondrous Place' (p. 230), Noel reflects upon the Northwest's rich musical heritage: "Between Manchester and Liverpool, you've probably got it all in British guitar music: The La's, The Beatles, Oasis, The Stone Roses, The Smiths." You can taste the past in Noel's recipe, with the four accompanying acts that he lists here, his main ingredients. The Beatles are rigorously entwined in Noel's lyrical formulations. The songsmith had clearly ingested Ian MacDonald's weighty 1994 Beatles' tome, Revolution in the Head ("Fucking amazing book, man...Fascinating, totally"). Glaring evidence of this can be found in a couplet from My Big Mouth: "And as you look into the eyes of a bloody cold assassin / It's only then you'll realize with whose life you have been messing". MacDonald's book dissects the confrontational element of Lennon's cryptic lyricism, and how this fuelled the fixated, deranged minds of Mark Chapman and Charles Manson. The Beatles, at the fore of Sixties counterculture, fell under the influence of Bob Dylan as their lyrics became more personal and topical. Settling into a pot-pourri of fragments and allusions, this engagingly jumbled approach to writing encouraged clue-hunters and pseuds alike to pore over song lyrics. In the heady atmosphere of the '60s, the fascination grew into rumours and outlandish theories, most notably the Paul is Dead proposition.

A plethora of Stone Roses references can be found in Oasis's work, originally quite well disguised, but reaching a tiresome and blatant peak on their Be Here Now material:

In the case of 'Magic Pie', this appears to have been reciprocal; a John Squire lyric from Love Is The Law, "Oasis was a shop with shoes so hot, they were sure to blow your mind", considered alongside the Magic Pie lyric, 'I dig their shoes', reveals a mutual appreciation of 'shoes'. 'Shoes' equates to songs, with Squire acknowledging how Oasis took up the Roses' mantle, and Noel returning the compliment. ". . . they wrote the greatest songs of the late '80s. I've said this to John Squire - without that band there would not have been an Oasis." (Noel Gallagher, Uncut magazine, February 1998). Asked by Dave Simpson (Melody Maker, May 1995) to explain the meteoric rise of Oasis, Squire commented, "Songs. Have songs, will travel." While the Roses lose ground and rest on their laurels, Oasis make tracks; the Gallaghers put on their shoes and walk triumphantly down the hall of fame. This is a clever lyric by Squire which works on several different levels. Oasis was the name of an underground market in Affleck's Palace, and thus the word 'hot', taken in a fashionable context, can mean either stylish or hookie. Oasis had recorded their debut album, Definitely Maybe, virtually next door to the Roses at nearby Monnow Valley Studio, a former Rockfield rehearsal space. As to the origin of this wordplay, on interview tapes, John Lennon would sometimes speak of 'boots' in reference to material ("Pepper was just an evolvement of the Beatle boots..."). On this note, could the "blow your mind" facet of the Seahorses lyric point to The Stone Roses' December 1995 Select magazine cover: We've got to blow people's heads off !! ? Highlighted in bold in this sentence are the words 'blow' and 'heads'; a blowhead is a person that does copious amounts of cocaine. A champagne supernova is a martini glass full of champagne with cocaine on the rim, as salt would be on a Margarita. This reading of the Select cover is supported by the accompanying thought bubble from Mani, Zip it weedbrain !, also in bold. A zip is an ounce of marijuana (the amount that fits in a ziplock bag). These factors, when considered collectively, suggest that this magazine cover was a response from a band who were 'in the know' concerning Noel's 'spiritual riddle' (see below). Clearly on a Glass Onion ("Well, here's another clue for you all...") tip, Noel attempts to link his own songs in a 'riddle' with those of The Stone Roses, for example claiming that 'Sally', from their 1996 single 'Don't Look Back in Anger', is Sally Cinnamon and that (the figure) 'Lyla', their 2005 single, is "Sally's sister" (on this note, if you drop the 's', Lyla has close relationship to Sally too, in anagram form). Sally Cinnamon was very much a signature riff for Noel Gallagher at the height of Britpop. The guitarist could regularly be heard playing this riff at the end of 'Acquiesce'; listen to, for example, 'Live By The Sea', 'There and Then', The White Room performance (17/04/95), and Glastonbury '95. After Noel plays this riff at Glastonbury, Liam dedicates the subsequent song, Supersonic, to The Stone Roses, who had to cancel their scheduled appearance at the festival because of John Squire's mountain biking accident in Northern California: "This one's for my mates who can't be here because one of them can't ride a bike. But never mind. Supersonic for the lads." (Another dedication by the Gallagher brothers can be found here). In interviews, Noel describes hearing Sally Cinnamon for the first time as a defining moment for him: "When I heard Sally Cinnamon for the first time, I knew what my destiny was." Oasis take this formula and run with it. Click here to view an Oasis rehearsal at Manchester Boardwalk from 1992, with Noel running through the intro of Sally Cinnamon.

In this Select feature from November 1995, Noel Gallagher hints at connections between his own work and that of The Stone Roses. Click here and here to view these in larger format. The Stone Roses would grace the following month's cover of Select magazine.

What's the story, morning glory ? What's the tale, nightingale ? What's the word on the street ? Speaking to Mojo magazine in Autumn 2001, Mani joked that, such was the sense of unfulfilled expectation, Second Coming should have been titled 'Premature Ejaculation'. In the wake of its release, it would be Oasis who were left to bask in morning glory. I would not take too literally, the hint from Noel that "the answers are all in Champagne Supernova". The eponymous La's LP ends with Looking Glass, which, at its blistering finale, features a cauldron of samples from the album, bubbling to the surface. I imagine that Noel perceives Champagne Supernova to be his 'Looking Glass', hence his wilful projection of the song as a key embodiment of the project (furthermore, Stop the Clocks is Looking Glass by numbers). Those who diligently unwind the melody c(h)ord of Noel's masterplan will un-dish-cover the fish. Dishcover the riddle and you will find the answers in (the) looking glass. The La's were a profound influence on both Gallagher brothers, with Noel declaring only days after the release of Oasis' debut single that his masterplan was to "finish what The La's started".

Top: And cast your words away upon the waves.
Bottom: From the room of self-doubt, opens a window of opportunity.

The Oasis track, 'The Importance of Being Idle' has a 'Clean Prophet' template, and has been dedicated by the band to Lee Mavers, in concert. Disgruntled at allusion to his reclusive status and Noel's pilfering of his work, Mavers responded, "Noel needs to realise the importance of being honest." (Clash Music magazine, March 2009).

Noel often remoulds and provides addendum to La's material - for example, the lifeless 'Stop the Clocks' xeroxes 'Looking Glass', with the "turn the world around" lyric a direct lift.

Stop the Clocks was debuted in 2003 at the Zanzibar club in Liverpool, a fitting place to air it, given its looking glass ties.

Top: "Slip inside the eye of your mind..."
Bottom: Extract from Isle of Noises (Daniel Rachel, 2013). A comparison of La's (My Generation, Jumpin' Jack Flash...) and Oasis (My Generation, Street Fighting Man...) cover versions demonstrate that Mavers distilled the essence of the Sixties with a much superior craft. Contrast, for example, The La's' exhilirating cover (those handclaps !) of My Generation (Japan, 2005) with Liam Gallagher's dullard performance alongside Roger Daltrey (TFI Friday, 2015). The latter pub-rock spectacle takes on the appearance of a Dave Lee Travis / Herman Munster duet. Like watching your grandad singing karaoke with one of your weird distant older cousins from the other side of the family.

Chess as metaphor for fate. Think like a grandmaster, planning victory in eleven moves. Wonderland is not a place. Wonderland is a state of mind. Experience another world more real than reality. To make sense of this world, the receiver forms a picture. I am receiving, to give you this feeling. Psychedelic: psyche (mind or soul), delos (to reveal or manifest). He is just a child with nothing to lose but his mind. An acute perception doesn't make you crazy, but it can drive you crazy. Through the doors of perception, all things are one. Alice dreams that she sees the White Rabbit and follows him down the Rabbit-hole, into the Hall of Many Doors. Better run, rabbit run. Run into the sun. Leave the surreal, nightmarish underground world of Wonderland and explore the drug-dream undertones of Looking-glass house. Where the author is god of his own world, the possibilities are infinite and the infinite is a possibility. Slip inside this house, the mind's eye of true conception. You unlock this door with the key of imagination. Now you're doing time in the universal mind, in the deepest reaches of inner space. You might find yourself opening many doors on life's corridor of uncertainty. What Alice found there was a better place to play. There must be something in the water here. I think she's messin' round, I think it's LSD (Alice Dee). Liverpool is the pool of life. And the light comes from the water. Life is turned inside out, doubled up in a world of make-believe. I spend my time sittin' on the fence with a mate of mine. I'm tryin' to write the line of a story. Composed on a birthday of four and twenty, this trip to inexorable oblivion writes like a dream, a mirror of sight and sound into the world beyond. Our very sense of reality is challenged at every turn. High in a corner in a cupboard on a shelf. You turn a corner and walk into yourself. In Case Of Emergency Break Glass. Give me the hammer to shatter the dream, to get a way out of this. The quest for dream logic in the collective unconscious reveals a fractal pattern of infinite regress. What spiritual essence lies beyond the visible realm ? An offering to a higher power from the lost boy ? Tell me where I'm going. Tell me where I'm bound. Having a better purchase on truth, the wide-eyed child is lifted to the level of a spiritual seer. Then I shall know even as I am known. This dream brought with it a sense of finality. One could not go beyond the centre.

Turn the pages over. Turn the world around. Alice enters the looking glass.

'Answers' to this 'spiritual riddle' on (What's The Story) Morning Glory ? can be found here, here, here and here. The skin and blister of She's Electric, trailed by an apostolic band of twelve, perhaps has relation here. I would not read too much, either, into this riddle having, bar the occasional gem, a 'spiritual' aspect of any significance to speak of. The Oasis cannon of work lacks the deftness of touch and intricacy of The Stone Roses' '88/'89 material (or the primal intensity and raw power of Mavers) in this regard. Now you understand that this is not the promised land they spoke of.

For an encapsulation of how the intellect of man has become woefully dimmed, see Noel Gallagher's 2012 appearance on the abominable RTÉ series, The Meaning of Life, hosted by Gay Byrne. Turns out that a man who spent his life's work undermining Catholicism is now considered by the average twenty-something in Ireland to be the embodiment of it. Abandon all hope, ye who enter here. When weighing up whether to appear on this programme, I can well imagine that Noel's thought process went something like 'I saw Bono do this sort of thing the other week. I'll give this a go. Can't be that difficult'. Gay Byrne's touchstone for the miraculous is immediately revealed in his opening gambit, an Abu Dhabi do. An expensively assembled football team scoring two goals in quick succession, thereby pipping an equally expensively assembled football team to the title - much like Ian Brown's slack-jawed impiety in worshipping at the feet of some ringpiece fooling around with a Coke can and a ten-pence coin, subliminal association at its most devious - is exalted to miracle classification. Noel's wholesale rejection of religion is prefaced with the perennial 'organised religion = war' canard.

After some comments about touching up his wife and the obligatory pantheistic babble ("God is in me, God is in everybody..."), Noel goes into full-Brent mode, declaring that "Growing with your wife is the meaning of life". Noel's second wife, we are dutifully informed, is a "real angel", because "she appeared out of the smoke in a nightclub" (by which reckoning, DJ Ray Von is a veritable god). The ultimate end of the whole divine economy is the entry of God's creatures into the perfect unity of the Blessed Trinity, but according to Noel, viewers shouldn't concern themselves about their destination (I would say the endgame is pretty much the whole point, you dork). Derp calling on derp, the grinning, buffoon-like host, with a face you would never tire punching, sits nodding at every morsel of pseudo-spiritual tripe thrown his way, asking, as the interview draws to a close, "What do you think Jesus was ?", as if Christ were some historical footnote. Both the choice of interrogative word (What) and the use of the past-tense (was) of that question should be screaming off the page here. Evidently, Christ has been consigned to the dustbin of history by this clampet. What you have straight from the tongue of this nitwit is a complete bastardisation of the question from Matthew's Gospel: Who do you say I am is now What do you think I was. Noel - whose theological preparation for this soulful exchange appears not to have extended beyond renting out a DVD of Godspell - responds, "Well, I don't know, I don't know. Jesus, if it's to be believed, was maybe the first rockstar. He had his band - twelve of them - and he had followers. And (affects an intellectual pause and concentratively closes eyes) ... the words of Jesus, if they are to be believed, really is just the preaching of right and wrong, y'know, and all the things that you should feel if you're a civilized human being." If it's to be believed ? Before you pitch your tent anywhere near Christ, let us be clear about a few things here. If Jesus is to be believed, then you have the Catholic Church, period. If Jesus is not to be believed, then you can look at Him through whatever spaced out secular prism you so desire. Jesus Christ is first and foremost a Saviour, not a glorified social worker or moralist on which to hook your befuddled conscience. This is Hell, nor are we out of it. Byrne's final question, carefully selective in its eschatological presupposition, brings this heinous half-hour to a fitting close: "Suppose, Noel, it is all true. When you get there to the pearly gates and he/she is standing in front of you, what will you say ?". If 'it' is true, and by 'it', I am assuming we are talking about some remnant shards of Christianity here, then why is Byrne transporting Noel (note the use of the word when, as opposed to if, in Byrne's question) to the threshold of these 'pearly gates' ? In the previous question, the host closed a dustbin lid on Christ and his interviewee, quite literally, did not know Jesus from Adam. Jesus is provided with a neutralized identity by Byrne (lest he offend any New Age feminist wackos who may happen to be tuning in), and note carefully who is standing in front of who, according to the construct of this question. Noel is not standing in front of Jesus, no siree, Jesus is standing in front of Noel. Furthermore, according to God's go-to guy, Noel will be the one guiding the conversation ("what will you say ?"). Feeding off Byrne's pandering to his ego, Noel affords himself another faux-intellectual pause and ends the interview thus: "I'd say, 'You've heard Don't Look Back in Anger' ? They'd say, 'Of course.' And I'd say, 'Well look, it's me. Let us in. I can play you a tune. I robbed some stuff, I took a lot of drugs. But I'm all right. I can write a song. Let us in. I can't play the harp though.'" Keep this shit up and you best get learning the hurdy-gurdy. If this guff is what passes for spirituality, then perhaps the strongest spiritual insight to be gleaned by the listener can be found on the very song he references at these pearly gates: "Please don't put your life in the hands / Of a rock 'n' roll band / Who'll throw it all away." This hour-long insult to the tenets of Catholicism could easily have gone by the title of Oasis' sixth studio album, the Zoo TV-pinched headline, Don't Believe the Truth. The meaning of life ? You two numbnuts are butchering the author of life. I have not witnessed a more contemptible Irish/Mancunian collaborative hatchet job on Christ since Sinead O'Connor dueted with Ian Brown on Some Folks Are Hollow. Given the holiness, faith and humility with which Saint Augustine and Saint Thomas Aquinas (who themselves scratched their heads over a few things) read Scripture, what never ceases to amaze, is the imbecilic helter-skelter interpretation of today, where Noel Gallagher and Ian Brown are looked towards by society for spiritual guidance. A deplorable gravitation from the interpretive three-legged stool of Tradition, Scripture and Magisterium towards the fallacious whim of self-appointed spokespeople on theological pogo sticks. What next, Ozzy Osbourne provides a personal compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church ? Do not put your trust in princes, but instead look towards the great spiritual insight of Saint Augustine: "For Thou hast formed us for Thyself, and our hearts are restless till they find rest in Thee." Note the triune formula applied here by Augustine ("Thou", "Thyself", "Thee" ... "till they find rest in Thee"); anyone who speaks of Christ in terms of feelings, or on some sort of buddy level - and both Noel Gallagher and Ian Brown comprehensively tick these boxes - is a Grade A bluffer.

Sometimes this shit just writes itself. On 22nd May 2017, a Muslim suicide bomber killed twenty-two people and injured over a hundred at Manchester Arena, following a concert by Ariana Grande. Quite why children as young as eight were in this den of immorality, brought to a pornographic performance by their fathers and mothers, I do not know. Wrist icicle, ride dick bicycle. Seriously ? EIGHT. YEAR. OLD. GIRLS. There will be millstones aplenty on the Last Day.

Minutes after the explosion, a Leslie Nielsen of a PA announcer set the tone for the weeks to come: "There's no problems [sic] here. Thank you for coming and having a good time tonight. Everything is fine." Dressed up like the Hatter, the Queen enquired of a young girl in pain: "You had enjoyed the concert, presumably ?". "Apart from that Mrs Lincoln, how did you enjoy the play ?".

A vigil held in the city centre was hijacked by Lydia Bernsmeier-Rullow (daughter of broadcaster Mike Shaft - now ain't that a coinkidink ?), double-barrelled in both surname and gut. Creating a black hole of cringe, this bouquet-clutching bint (no doubt a remainiac zombie) breaks into a 'spontaneous' rendition of Don't Look Back in Anger. Your neck is that fat, you probably couldn't look back even if you wanted to. Across the board, the mockingbird media were keen to push the narrative that the crowd, to a man, spontaneously burst into song here. A quick view of the video reveals anything but. Although three's a crowd, I suppose. This 'symbolic outpouring of Manchester's resilient spirit' is just what the British Broadcasting Caliphate et al ordered, with the likes of Emma Barnett (BBC) and Josh Halliday (Guardian) on hand to gush at her feet.

Looking for all the world like some leftover from a Princess Diana memorial service, the mascot of this media spectacle is patently flagging at certain points. [Enter, Stage Right, the ghost of Nigel Ipinson] "Come on, sing up ! ... Come on, louder than that ! ... You can do better than that !" ... "We love you Manchester !" ... "Rock on, Manchester !". And the crowd goes mild. Hear the ferocious Saxon war cry ! ISIS, clench your anus, you've got some tea headed right your way. Yes, I bet the jihadists were really shitting their pants in their council estates at the sound of this. This cuckolded white flag culture is displaying Stockholm syndrome of the worst kind. Keep cucked and carry on. Did not one person at this gathering have the backbone to speak up and tell this monstrosity to STFU ? Incredible how the sight of a bouquet is enough to hoodwink people into believing they are witnessing genuine grief. Just a quick heads up to all concerned - if anyone launches into an 'impromptu' performance of any sort at a service in my attendance, they will be promptly going the way of the deceased. That dumb shit only works on The Grinch. These cretins would try to pet a rabid bear. But hey, maybe we can just talk sense with them over hummus or something. Kumbaya. This is a people parroting 'unity', whose identity has been drowned in multicultural rhetoric. Torrents of virtue signalling hashtags, a tidal wave of sugary platitudes, and PC tweets from leftist tw@ts like there's no tomorrow.

Singing pop music round the bodies of butchered children. This is the way the West ends. Not with a bang but a whimpering pop song. These sheeple are as much a problem as the Muslim terrorists. There Is a Light That Never Goes Out also got a brief rotation on this public square jukebox. Where there's music and there's people, and they're young and alive ? Not with Islam in the arena. Such elevation of pop songs to hymn-like status is precisely what happens when you indoctrinate an entire city with this 'Manchester Passion' bollocks. Might I suggest a different number, this one from the Manics: If You Tolerate This Your Children Will Be Next. And you don't go on grief tourism in 2017. Grief tourism comes to you. Student guitarists and hipster buskers jumped on the bandwagon and duly displayed their fret skills at services all across the land. Go and get the guitar. If this is our anthem in the fight against terrorism, can we please send this so-called woman to combat the Islamic State with her vocal cords ? Hogging the media after the vigil, the fat-arsed wombat claimed that "Manchester will recover" - this transgendered Bruno Mars is a spokesperson for the populace of an entire city it seems ? Fatso wants to "drown out the fear and hate with beautiful voices". Speak ye here on some triggered metaphysical plain ? Up until the point where you opened your ginormous pie hole, all I could hear was the sound of silence. Yes, the Two Minutes Hate must have been so overpowering. My God, the silence ! Apparently, Islam is the real victim here. Did you know that in practically 100% of these suicide bombings, the first person to die is a Muslim ? We have to protect them.

This looks staged as fuck. North Korea at least get their propaganda for free. But I can handle this; I'm the rhyme biter, crime fighter, caped crusader, takin' care of undeservin' lime lighters. Holy fake news, Batman ! This is surreal !

Indeed, the hard left are now, more than ever, openly hijacking public grief. At a 'vigil' the following day in Birmingham (the handiwork of Stand Up to Racism and 'anti-Islamophobia' group MEND), local Tory party and UKIP branches were informed their supporters were not welcome. CNN (Counterfeit News Network) soon raised this to the level of an art form, stage-managing a group of Muslims denouncing the London Bridge terrorist attack, and then presenting it as news. A pair of PC PCs stand by and facilitate the entire charade. Welcome to mainstream media in the age of urban terrorism.

A quick online search reveals that this attention seeker is host and compere of The Boi Zone, Manchester's premiere Drag King night, at which she goes by the name Dick Slick. I'm not making this stuff up, folks. This wannabe celeb has also appeared on Gok Wan's How to Look Good Naked [Insert your own joke here].

Listen, don't mention the Islamic war. I mentioned it once, but I think I got away with it all right. Speaking to Radio X soon after, a totes emosh Noel Gallagher basks in the glory of Dick Slick and the Manchester Thick singing one of his songs. He proceeds to skirt around the issue, avoiding any mention whatsoever of the Islamic ideology behind this attack (and tens of thousands more). Best to keep the aforementioned 'organised religion = war' card in your pocket here, lest you be drawn into specifics. Foremost in Noel's mind are the feelings and future plans of Ariana Grande, whose first name he can't even manage to get right: "I mean, I don't know what Aria Grande's gonna do". Yes, because the feelings and gig schedule of the Kabbalah-practising Ariana Grande are the most pressing of concerns here. This doughnut-licking airhead is still mourning Trump's presidential election victory. What will Ariana Grande do ? Gyrate in PVC pants to the next batch of 8-year-old girls coming along the conveyor belt I imagine. The heels just got two inches higher. Despite performing at the One Blub Manchester concert, Liam was equally in the dark as to the identity of its main performer: "Respect to everyone that got it together, man. And the girl. What's she called again ?" (3FM). Game girl ? Nohow ! Allah benefits. His mind is scrambled !

I wanna dance with some bobby. Young girls sacrificed in worship of a pagan god in the month of May; policemen prancing around with conditioned children in circular parade as if the victims never existed. It's like something out of the fucking Wicker Man. Ring a Ring o' Roses ? Shouldn't you be on the lookout for terrorists ? Perhaps feeling left out of the limelight, the Andrew Ridgeley of Oasis wasted no time in launching a solo career off the back of this manufactured emotional response, itching to christen Live Forever as official anthem. Following the lead of (Muslim Mayor of Londonistan) Sadiq Khan's mantra ("Get Used To Terrorism"), a pandering Independent led with "There's only one way Britain should respond to attacks such as Manchester. That is by carrying on exactly as before." "Normal business has resumed", proclaimed Liam Gallagher before performing a few solo tracks. Good lord, the hubris. If a Liam Gallagher solo album is the answer, I'm not sure I want to know what the question is. Jon Snow of Challah 4 was despatched to the Court of Liam to test the reformation waters in a much-ballyhooed sit-down - the Stanley and Livingstone moment of our time. Announcing the Manchester Ritz gig, this weapons-grade chancer managed to compare terrorism to a malfunctioning vending machine, telling the Manchester Evening News: "It's just fucking out of order." Why am I getting flashbacks to Danny Dyer's measured assessment of 9/11 here. "Right ! Get me on the front of this fucking paper before it all goes pear-shaped". No, that's not the leading line of a May 2017 NME Gallagher brothers feature. Contrariwise ! That's Noel Gallagher one day after 9/11 in conversation with said newspaper. Little has changed, except the fact that this shit has now landed on your proverbial doorstep.

Tweedledum and Tweedledee agreed to have a battle. For Tweedledum said Tweedledee had spoiled his nice new rattle. Tweedledum threw his rattle out of the pram, giving Tweedledee grief for not milking One Blub, tweeting: "Manchester, I'd like to apologise for my brother's absence last night ... Play your tunes for the kids you sad fuck." That doesn't at all read like a jilted bride at the altar. What's The Story ? Mourning Glory. There's glory for you ! This pair of ambulance chasers were far more entertaining when they weren't pretending they had a social conscience.

A raft of Manchester 'faces' and miscellaneous trendies donned yellow ribbons for a DLBIA-soundtracked fun run (complete with marching band no less), so perhaps everything is going to be okay after all. Hold on... I'm just hearing in my earpiece that ISIS are ready to lay down their arms and surrender. Deep down, these politically correct elites were probably running all the faster in fear of another attack, Boston-style. Run on, Manchester !

Among the professional Islamic apologists on the run at this event was mayor of Greater Manchester, Andy Burnham. A grandstanding teary-eyed Burnham also found time to comment on the aforementioned fat mess clearing her throat: "That moment was something special. That's what you need to know about Manchester." These 'moments' are so cherished by cowards such as Burnham because they distract from his own shameful track record of Islamic appeasement (see his peddling of the Muslim extremists' narrative about Prevent).

What's up ? ... What's up London ! No sooner had I finished writing this piece on the Manchester bombing than I read that London Bridge is under attack (Ramadan innit, bruv). No wonder where.am.i is getting his cities mixed up. Pass the teddy bear ! Bodies lie in pools of blood but once again, the feelings of Ariana Grande take centre stage. The Grief Thief Appropriation Unit at Peel Towers declare that her rescheduled Manchester gig (soon to be broadcast by the Ministry of Truth) now takes on "greater purpose" in the wake of the London attack. Maranatha ! Not to worry - normal service will be resumed as soon as Liam Gallagher sobers up. Arianators and Ariators assemble !

Recommended viewing:
Celebrities Virtue Signal Over London Terror Attack; Media push "He Wasn't A Real Muslim" Narrative (YouTube username: Schwinn Wiggins)

The religious affiliation of the perpetrators is still unclear (Shintoists ? Jehovah's Witnesses ? Mennonites ? The mystery thickens...), but rest assured that out there, somewhere, Mick Jones is purposefully tuning up his six-string. The interminable grief train reached Glastonbury Festival, with Noel managing to coax the sheeple into singing Don't Like Blamin' Allah at a Q&A event. Liam had raised the stakes earlier in the day, taking victims of both terror and fire under his wing in dedicating the song to the Manchester attack, London attack, and a recent fire at Grenfell Tower caused by a faulty fridge-freezer. We're running out of elements here. I don't really know what's left. Victims of PPI ? "Hope will turn to anger", warned world-renowned fire safety expert and voice of the dispossessed, Lily (the Pinko) Limpet, against a backdrop of the tower. Don't look back in anger, Lily ! All that's needed now is for Phillip Schofield to show up and defiantly self-immolate, to show fire we are not cowed. When Blub comes to town, I'm gonna jump that train. Somewhat inevitably, U2 got in on the act, inviting Noel on stage to sing Don't Knock Allahu Akbar at London's Twickenham Stadium in July. Tweedledee's litany of grief levelled the score with Tweedledum: "For the people of Manchester, Grenfell Tower, LONDON BRIDGE !!!". For the record, this thing now has a bigger back end than Hattie McDaniel.

Time now for a game of guess the author of this quote:

Donald Trump ? Nigel Farage ? Marine Le Pen ? ... Noel Gallagher, April 2016 ! What a difference a year makes !

 

Top left: He lives under a waterfall.... An HMV advertisement, featuring Noel Gallagher. "It was like, fuck women and forget fucking alcohol. I wanna join a band. And that's the kind of music I wanna make and that's what we wanna look like." (Noel Gallagher speaking about the Roses' breakthrough, '100 Greatest Albums', Channel 4).
Top right: In a Q Magazine Cash For Questions feature from November 2002, Squire sets the record straight on the symbiotic relationship purported to have existed between the Roses and Mondays: "I played you in the film 24 Hour Party People, but the scene was cut out. During one scene the Bez character introduces the Roses to their first Es and much "I'm your best mate" bonding ensues. Did this really happen ?" (Jamie Bowman, Liverpool). Squire: "No, I don't remember doing drugs with Happy Mondays and we didn't really hang about with them at all. People think the two bands were joined at the hip for some reason, but I only met Bez at the Haçienda and then we met the rest of the group on Top Of The Pops one time and that was about it really. And I haven't seen the film either, but they sent me a release form so I could authorise my scenes, but I didn't bother. Which is probably why we didn't appear in it at all." With a pop/rock/shuffle beat formula shot through prisms of psychedelia, dub and '60s pop, The Stone Roses' work between the summers of 1987 and 1990 possesses a timeless quality. Happy Mondays' output from this same era, with its over-produced, clunky sound, seems so utterly locked into the time frame from which it came (so too, Inspiral Carpets; Morrissey was bang on the money with "the revenge of the daft"). The press at the time were falling over each other to hail the Mondays and Roses as that generation's Beatles and Stones. Substitute the Mondays with the crystalline guitar pop and economy of arrangement of a band more Sixties than the Sixties itself (The La's, bottom), and then we might be able to talk. Perhaps a little too keen to appear down with the kids, Paul McCartney joined in with a glowing appraisal of the Happy Mondays when speaking to the NME in November 1990: "I saw the Happy Mondays on TV, and they reminded me of the Beatles in their 'Strawberry Fields' phase." Beyond the common factor of copious drug intake, I, personally, cannot fathom any artistic comparisons worth drawing between the two. In 1997, McCartney mistakenly thought that Lenny Kravitz was called Lenny Craddock and thus, perhaps too much credence should not be attached to the former Beatle's grasp of the contemporary music scene. Chasing yesterday, The La's were drawn to the same prelapsarian well that later inspired Oasis (whose grounded Shakermaker video has a distinct There She Goes flavour), with a street level, straight-ahead sensibility that felt somehow gigantic. Just as The Stone Roses were hitting their stride with Elephant Stone in late 1988, The La's released the heartbursting There She Goes. Both parties would become entrenched in label disputes, coupled, in the case of Lee Mavers, with an obsessive perfectionism from the antipodes of the mind. Had these two acts been afforded a clear run, the pair's catalogue would sit comfortably alongside that of their '60s forefathers. In the final analysis, one classic LP and one botched patchwork production - disowned by its creator - represents a lamentable return for the offspring of the 1960's 'flower children' (The Roses would not come close to a Beggars Banquet - Exile on Main St. run of form). The panoramic deleted version of Timeless Melody from the 1988 vinyl test pressing acetate, produced by Mike Hedges but pulled from release, gives a tantalising insight into what might have been. If only John Power and Chris Sharrock hadn't gone on that holiday to Hawaii...

******* Tony Wilson, a journalist for Granada Television, founded the record label Factory Records and the Haçienda nightclub in Manchester. A semi-fictionalized version of his life and of the surrounding era was made into a 2002 film, '24 Hour Party People', which stars the comedian Steve Coogan as Wilson. Wilson often overplays the merit of Factory's Happy Mondays, on occasion claiming them to be a more important band than The Stone Roses, and hailing vocalist Shaun Ryder as being on a par with the great English poets and lyricists of the past ("the greatest British poet since Yeats"..."the greatest lyric writer since Dylan"); of his contemporaries, Morrissey or Shane MacGowan would be much more deserving of any such appraisal. Adopting the 'Cemetry Gates' model of a plot division along lines of literary merit, if Keats, Yeats and Dylan are on one side, then Shaun William Ryder is very firmly on the other. In a BBC Factory Records documentary ('From Joy Division To Happy Mondays'), Wilson stretches things a tad too far in crediting Fool's Gold to the Happy Mondays: "We now remember The Stone Roses, quite rightly, for things like Fool's Gold, which is the rolling Acid House rhythm that the Mondays invented six months before." Happy Mondays can certainly be credited with second-guessing the prevailing cultural wind of an acid house upsurge, but this new musical direction taken by The Stone Roses in November 1989 was galvanized to a much greater extent by a Warrior breakbeat record obtained by John Squire. Furthermore, Happy Mondays did not invent a rolling Acid House rhythm (that invention process took place across the Atlantic). This somewhat inflated opinion of his own act is, I would suggest, an attempt to compensate for the one that got away (two, if we were to include The Smiths). Andy Couzens states that Wilson tried everything that he could to prevent the Roses' progression, and his thoughts are echoed by Stone Roses manager, Howard Jones:

Happy Mondays, while being a key facet of the 'Madchester' movement's aesthetic, were not in the same league as The Stone Roses, artistically or musically (to my knowledge, a Happy Mondays LP has never topped - or came close to topping - a best ever British LP poll). In a 'Wired' Joy Division documentary in 1988, Wilson also makes the very challengeable claim that The Buzzcocks were "the greatest punk group".

Modal analysis (by Steve Davidson):

This song has a modal change but retains the same Root note. It starts out with the verse chords essentially a Gb power chord, but the tonality implies a Gb major chord. Then there is a descending melody in the bass of the following chords: Cb major, Gb major/Bb, Ab minor. The second time, it goes up at the end like this:

Cb major, Gb major/Bb, Db7sus4.

So all these chords belong to the Key of Gb Ionian. Here are the notes:

Gb Ionian scale (Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb F Gb)

Some of you may prefer to think of it as F# Ionian. In which case the notes will be F# G# A# B C# D# E# F#. As it goes to the chorus, the 2nd descending melody in the bass is different. The chords this time are:

Fb major, Cbsus4/Eb, Dbmin7

The tonal centre is Still Gb but it shifts slightly by way of the Fb major chord (otherwise known as an E major chord) to Gb Mixolydian. Here are the notes:

Gb Mixolydian scale (Gb Ab Bb Cb Db Eb Fb Gb)

It's perhaps easier to think of it as F# Mixolydian, which hosts the same notes but in a slightly friendlier fashion:

F# Mixolydian (F# G# A# B C# D# E F#)

In this case the last 3 chords would read like this: E major, Bsus4/D#, C#min7. It returns to Gb Ionian again for the verse riff. Then the fast bit. Here the tonal centre shifts again to the Ab Dorian mode. The chords are Ab minor, Cb major, Db major. The notes are the same as the Gb Ionian scale, but the emphasis is on the Ab minor chord during this section.

And finally, the end section. We're back to our Gb power chord which again implies a major chord. This time, Squire stays with the Gb Mixolydian mode throughout to give it a more moody feel.


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