Straight To The Man
Saying this revelation
All, you'd better beware
Who'll cast the first stone ?
Skin to the bone
Bring it all on home
Bring it on for Jerome
So build a castle, build a brand new castle
Yeah yeah yeah yeah yeah
Straight to the man
On an island of traders
You know they're trying to fade ya
No-one can train you
No-one evade you
No-one can fade you
Saying don't be late
No, the train won't wait
Saying don't be late
Oh the boat can't wait
Saying don't be late
No, the train nor the boat
Or the train can't wait yeah
Do do do do do do do do do do do
Do do do do do do do do do do
Do do do do do do do...
Heading straight to the man
Oh you know they'll never evade you
So now I stand here
Love cuts down a revolver
I'm stood damned in Sodom and Gomorrah
So I'm singing to Kingston
Your teaching it's on
They say it's a fable
Though I was made able
I slipped through the net
Wanna bet it's a ramble, a sandstorm
One slip you know you'll never forget
Who could ever forget ?
You know I never forget
Do do do do do do do do do do do do do
Do do do do.. straight to the man
Oh you know they're trying to fade you
Saw this revelation, Cordelia Station
I don't need no powder
One kinda easy blind ya
Yeah the isles of Grande Bretagne owes a debt
Say the isles of Grande Bretagne
All the isles of Grande Bretagne
All the isles of Grande Bretagne owes a debt
Yeah the isles of Grande Bretagne
All isles, yeah Grande Bretagne, owes us a debt
John Squire (guitar)
Ian Brown (vocals)
Gary Mounfield (bass)
Alan Wren (drums, backing vocals)
Simon Dawson (Jew's Harp, Wurlitzer electric piano)
Simon Dawson & Paul Schroeder
Simon Dawson & Paul Schroeder
Second Coming (3.15)
First live performance:
Never performed live.
Take up the White Man's burden
Send forth the best ye breed
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives' need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.
Opening stanza of 'The White Man's Burden'* (1899) by Rudyard Kipling.
"I read The Bible whenever it takes me. I read Exodus a lot during the Gulf War, when we were recording in Wales. It hit home cos here was this rich family who was bringing the biggest army in the world to kill poor people. We couldn't do anything to stop it."
(Ian Brown speaking to Melody Maker, 13th May 1995)
Heaven help the boy who won't reach twenty-one
Heaven help the man who gave that boy a gun
Heaven help the people with their backs against the wall
Lord, Heaven help us all
Stevie Wonder, Heaven Help Us All (1970)
Top left: Donald Rumsfeld, Ronald Reagan's special envoy to the Middle East, meeting with President Saddam Hussein during a visit to Baghdad, Iraq in December 1983, during the Iran-Iraq War. The US remained officially neutral after the invasion of Iran that became the Iran-Iraq War, although it assisted Iraq covertly. In March 1982, however, Iran began a successful counteroffensive - Operation Undeniable Victory - and the United States increased support for Iraq to prevent Iran forcing a surrender. Iran's new found success in the war and its rebuff of a peace offer in July worried the US but an obstacle remained to any potential US-Iraqi relationship - Abu Nidal continued to operate with official support in Baghdad. When Iraqi President Saddam Hussein expelled the group to Syria at the United States' request in November 1983, the Reagan administration then sent Rumsfeld to meet Saddam Hussein as a special envoy and to cultivate ties.
Top right: In the Fall of 1990, Saddam Hussein detained several Westerners and paraded them on state television. The most famous of Saddam's 'guests' was a five-year-old boy named Stuart Lockwood, who - unlike Rumsfeld - stood with crossed arms, refusing to sit on the dictator's lap.
The Gulf War (2nd August 1990 - 28th February 1991) began with the invasion and annexation of Kuwait on 2nd August 1990. With United Nations authorization, a coalition force from 34 nations joined forces against Iraq, with the expressed purpose of expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait. The invasion of Kuwait by Iraqi troops had been met with wide international condemnation and immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council, and with immediate preparation for war by the United States of America, the United Kingdom, and Canada. In November 1990, The United Nations Security Council issued Resolution 678 stipulating that Saddam Hussein remove troops from Kuwait by 15th January 1991, otherwise a U.S.-led coalition would drive them out. Initial conflict to expel Iraqi troops from Kuwait began with aerial bombardment on 16th January 1991 (the commencement of Operation Desert Storm, second row), following expiration of the UN deadline; this was followed by ground assault on 23rd February and was a decisive victory for the coalition forces, which liberated Kuwait and advanced into Iraqi territory. The coalition stopped advancing and declared a cease-fire 100 hours after the ground campaign had started. In February 1995, The Stone Roses embarked upon a U.S. radio tour to promote Second Coming. After hearing United States' army radio ads urging people to sign up, Ian Brown did little to ingratiate himself with listeners on a Los Angeles radio station by mumbling, in response, "stop killing babies." Lines were jammed by irate callers and the incident made the local press.
Third row: On 26th February 1991, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait and they set on fire the Kuwaiti oil fields as they left; 737 oil wells were set on fire, causing severe environmental and economic damage to Kuwait.
Bottom row: The Highway of Death; crashed and abandoned vehicles line Highway 80, 19th April 1991. During the United Nations coalition offensive in the Gulf War, retreating Iraqi military personnel were attacked on Highway 80 by American aircraft and ground forces on the night of 26th-27th February 1991, resulting in the destruction of hundreds of vehicles and many of their occupants. Many Iraqi forces, however, succeeded in escaping across the Euphrates river and the U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency estimated that upwards of 70,000 troops from defeated divisions in Kuwait may have fled into the city of Basra. The scenes of devastation on this six-lane highway between Kuwait and Basra are some of the most recognizable images of the war. According to Elaine Sciolino of the New York Times, the images suggested a turkey shoot and contributed to the war's resolution soon afterwards.
On The Stone Roses' debut LP, both lyricists were on blistering form; this synergy had all but dissipated on their protracted follow-up offering. In their halcyon era, the band's B-sides were as good as their A-sides. Now, the band's B-sides were their A-sides; in their five years away, The Stone Roses could not even muster the energy to record two original b-sides for their comeback single.
Straight To The Man notably was the only solo lyrical composition credited to Ian Brown on Second Coming.
This lazy composition opens with a distinct Aboriginal sound - a Jew's Harp played by Simon Dawson - reminiscent of 'Join Together' by The Who. With rambling, at times impenetrable, lyrics, the song is damning of British colonialism ("All the isles of Grande Bretagne owes us a debt"), and the arbitrary treatment of colonies under her rule. Cordelia Station is a Philadelphia train station built in 1881; those left in the wake of British colonialism are stranded ("No, the train won't wait"). 'The Train Won't Wait' is the penultimate track on 'Barefoot Sunday Blues' (1963), by the Ramsey Lewis Trio. "Bring it all on home / Bring it on for Jerome" is formed around the Bo Diddley track, Bring It to Jerome ("Bring it on home / Bring it to Jerome"), part of the Chess Records catalogue.
On 22nd August 1770, on Possession Island, off what is now northern Queensland, James Cook claimed all of eastern Australia for King George III. The local Aboriginal inhabitants had, over tens of thousands of years, mapped the land their way, through their Dreaming (the source of inspiration for the Kate Bush song, 'The Dreaming'). This complex intertwining of land, culture, language, family relations and spiritual selves was to be put in danger from Cook's landing at Botany Bay in 1770. In interviews, Ian has always been keen to bring attention to the failures of British policies in history, stating in Melody Maker (3rd June 1989) that the British were the first nation to set up concentration camps, in the second Boer War (there were two Boer wars: 1880 - 1881 and 1899 - 1902). The Scramble For Africa was the invasion, occupation, colonization, and annexation of African territory by European powers during the New Imperialism (1870 - 1914) period, between 1881 and 1914. Consequent to the political and economic rivalries among the European empires, in the last quarter of the 19th century, the partitioning of Africa was how the Europeans avoided warring amongst themselves over Africa. The last 59 years of the 19th century saw the transition from 'informal imperialism' (hegemony) by military influence and economic dominance, to the direct rule of colonies. The British were primarily interested in maintaining secure communication lines to India, which led to initial interest in Egypt and South Africa. Once these two areas were secure, it was the intent of British colonialists such as Cecil Rhodes to establish a Cape-Cairo railway. Control of the Nile was viewed as a strategic and commercial advantage. Ian's interest in colonialist history has continued into his solo career (see this essay for details of his reading on colonialism).
Top: The areas of the world that at one time were part of the British Empire (Current British overseas territories are underlined in red). An Englishman's home is his castle and the nation would build a brand new castle in continents across the globe.
Second row (left): Captain James Cook (1775) by Nathaniel Dance (1735 - 1811). The voyages of discovery by Cook in the Pacific Ocean led to the founding of several British colonies, including Australia and New Zealand.
Second row (right): The Rhodes Colossus: caricature of Cecil Rhodes, after he announced plans for a telegraph line and railroad from Cape Town to Cairo (Published in Punch, 10th December 1892). Rhodes was an ardent exponent of colonialism and imperialism, and was the founder of the state of Rhodesia, which was named after him.
Third row: 'Robert Clive and his family with an Indian maid' (1765) by Joshua Reynolds (1723 - 1792). Servants were painted not as people, but as possessions for display, properties of their master.
Fourth row (left): Boer women and children in a British concentration camp, circa 1901. The British 'Scorched Earth' policy - the systematic destruction of crops and slaughter of livestock, the burning down of homesteads and farms, and the poisoning of wells and salting of fields - was designed to prevent the Boers from resupplying from a home base, and many tens of thousands of women and children were forcibly moved into concentration camps. This was not the first instance in history of internment camps. The Spanish had used internment in the Ten Years' War (1868 - 1878) that led to the Spanish-American War (1898), and the United States had used it to devastate guerrilla forces during the Philippine-American War (1899 - 1902). But the Boer War concentration camp system was the first time that a whole nation had been systematically targeted, and the first in which some whole regions had been depopulated. The camps had originally been set up by the British Army as 'refugee camps' to provide refuge for civilian families who had been forced to abandon their homes due to the war. However, when Kitchener succeeded Roberts as commander-in-chief in South Africa on 29th November 1900, the British Army introduced new tactics in an attempt to break the guerrilla campaign and the influx of civilians increased dramatically as a result. Kitchener initiated plans to: "flush out guerrillas in a series of systematic drives, organized like a sporting shoot, with success defined in a weekly 'bag' of killed, captured and wounded, and to sweep the country bare of everything that could give sustenance to the guerrillas, including women and children. It was the clearance of civilians - uprooting a whole nation - that would come to dominate the last phase of the war." (Thomas Pakenham, 'The Boer War'). There were a total of 45 tented camps built for Boer internees, and 64 for black Africans. Of the 28,000 Boer men captured as prisoners of war, 25,630 were sent overseas. The vast majority of Boers remaining in the local camps were women and children. Over 26,000 women and children were to perish in these concentration camps. It is thought that about 12% of all black African inmates died (about 14,154) but the precise number of deaths of Africans in concentration camps is unknown, as little attempt was made to keep any records of the 107,000 black Africans who were interned. The primary cause for the deaths in the camps was incompetence and a lack of adequate medical care rather than any deliberate attempt to kill. Nevertheless, the use of camps as a weapon against civilian populations pointed the way ahead to the horrors of total war in the 20th century.
Fourth row (right): Emily Hobhouse campaigned vigorously for improvement of the appalling conditions of the concentration camps. She helped to alter public opinion and to force the government to address the conditions in the camps, resulting in the Fawcett Commission. The camps were poorly administered from the outset and became increasingly overcrowded when Kitchener's troops implemented the internment strategy on a vast scale. Conditions were terrible for the health of the internees, mainly due to neglect, poor hygiene and bad sanitation. The food rations were meagre and there was a two-tier allocation policy, whereby families of men who were still fighting were routinely given smaller rations than others. The inadequate shelter, poor diet, poor hygiene and overcrowding led to malnutrition and endemic contagious diseases such as measles, typhoid and dysentery to which the children were particularly vulnerable.
Fifth row: Frongoch internment camp at Frongoch in Merionethshire, Wales was a makeshift place of imprisonment for German POWs during the First World War. After the British army suppressed the Easter Rising in 1916, authorities loaded their take of nearly 1,900 prisoners - among them such notable figures as Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith - onto cattle boats and shipped them across the Irish Sea to Britain. The prisoners were very poorly treated and Frongoch became a breeding ground for Irish revolutionaries. What was once a Welsh whisky distillery became the breeding ground for the subsequent guerrilla war campaign in Ireland. British authorities had previously executed 15 of the prisoners, including Patrick Pearse and James Connolly, within the first two weeks of the insurgents' surrender. Once in Britain, the surviving leaders were weeded out and sent to high-security prisons, while the junior officers and rank-and-file were interned in Frongoch. By concentrating the cream of the Irish Volunteers in Frongoch, the British had inadvertently advanced the cause of Irish republicanism. Men from Ulster, Munster, Leinster and Connacht, who under normal circumstances would never have met in Ireland, were gathered in Wales, where they exchanged ideas and worked out the blueprint for revolution. Irish National Party M.P. Tim Healy rued the establishment of the internment camp at Frongoch, claiming that the Home Secretary had created a "Sinn Fein University" for the inmates, with their education subsidised by the British.
Sixth row: In India, the jewel in the crown of the British Empire, a nationwide struggle for independence was launched by the Indian National Congress and other political organisations. Indian leader Mahatma Gandhi led millions of people in national campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience. On 15th August 1947, India gained independence from British rule, but at the same time, Muslim-majority areas were partitioned to form a separate state of Pakistan. Pictured are the two architects of Indian independence, peed in conversation: India's first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Mahatma Gandhi.
Seventh row: A British internment camp in Cyprus. 53,000 Jewish Holocaust survivors on their way to Palestine were incarcerated in British internment camps on Cyprus from 1946 to 1949. The camps played a role in both the independence movement of Cyprus and the creation of the state of Israel. The detention policy was part of an effort to deter Jewish immigration to Palestine under the British mandate. While the British administered the camps, humanitarian aid from the Jewish community in the United States was essential; of particular note was the Joint Distribution Committee which helped administer the camps. Emissaries from Palestine lived with the refugees in the camps as representatives of various Zionist movements, including the underground strike force of the Haganah, the military organization which trained the detainees in the camps to prepare them for military service when they ultimately arrived in Palestine. Internees and freedom fighters received clandestine training in the camps. On 10th February 1949, the last Jews finally were freed from the confines of the camps - 267 days after the establishing of the state of Israel and the evacuation of the British on 14th May 1948.
Eighth row (left): During the 1952 - 60 Mau-Mau uprising in Kenya, camps were established to detain suspected rebels. It is uncertain how many were held, but estimates range up to 150,000, and much of the Kikuyu population died through maltreatment, torture and summary executions.
Eighth row (right): Between 9th and 11th August 1971, hundreds of nationalists and republicans in Northern Ireland were arrested and interned at RAF Long Kesh military base (later known colloquially as Maze Prison or The H Blocks) without trial by the British Army and the Royal Ulster Constabulary on the orders of the then Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, Brian Faulkner, with the backing of the British government. During 'Operation Demetrius', the British Army killed 11 civilians and detained 342 people, leading to widespread protests and rioting. This period of internment inflamed sectarian tensions in Northern Ireland, while failing in its stated aim of arresting members of the paramilitary Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA). The backlash against internment and its bungled application contributed to the decision of the British government under Prime Minister Edward Heath to suspend the Stormont governmental system in Northern Ireland and replace it with direct rule from London, under the authority of a British Secretary of State for Northern Ireland. The British government attempted to show some balance by later arresting some loyalist paramilitaries, but out of the 1,981 men interned between 1971 and 1975, 874 were Irish nationalists, while 107 were Ulster loyalists. Internment was ended in December 1975, but had resulted in increased support for the IRA and created political tensions which culminated in the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike and the deaths of ten men. Following internment, a serving officer of the British Marines, Desmond Hamill, declared, "It has, in fact, increased terrorist activity, perhaps boosted IRA recruitment, polarised further the Catholic and Protestant communities and reduced the ranks of the much needed Catholic moderates."
Bottom: The fatal march on Bloody Sunday in Derry, on 30th January 1972, when 27 civil rights protestors were shot by British soldiers, was an anti-internment march. Father Daly is waving a white handkerchief while trying to escort the mortally wounded Jackie Duddy to safety. Thirteen people, seven of whom were teenagers, died immediately, while the death of another person five months later has been attributed to the injuries he received on the day. Two protesters were injured when they were run down by army vehicles. Many witnesses, including bystanders and journalists, testify that all those shot were unarmed. Five of those wounded were shot in the back. The city's coroner, retired British Army Major Hubert O'Neill, issued a statement on 21st August 1973, at the completion of the inquest into the people killed. He declared: "This Sunday became known as Bloody Sunday and bloody it was. It was quite unnecessary. It strikes me that the Army ran amok that day and shot without thinking what they were doing. They were shooting innocent people. These people may have been taking part in a march that was banned but that does not justify the troops coming in and firing live rounds indiscriminately. I would say without hesitation that it was sheer, unadulterated murder. It was murder." After 38 years of institutional denial, the Saville Report of 2010 prompted the British Government to apologise, and acknowledge the innocence of those who were killed.
"Who'll cast the first stone ?" relates to Jesus forgiving the woman being castigated for committing adultery (John 7: 53 - 8: 11). Mosaic law specified death by stoning for adultery, yet Roman law forbade the Jews from carrying out executions. The Romans allowed the Jews a certain amount of self-administration, but only up to a point. The Jewish self-administration did stretch to what we today call criminal justice, but it stopped short of the death penalty. This is most apparent when Jesus is brought in front of Pontius Pilate, so that the latter may condemn Him and give imprimatur to the Pharisees' desire to have Him executed. Now Moses in the law commanded us to stone such a one. But what sayest thou ?. The trap here is clear: if Jesus had answered "she must be executed", they would have denounced Him to the Romans as a subversive , as He publicly presents Himself as alternative to their power, and in opposition to it. If Our Lord had said: "ask the Romans", they would have accused Him of being a puppet of the despised Roman occupier. If He had said: "she must not be executed", they would have accused Him of neglecting the Law. Jesus turns the table on them, and puts them in a very difficult spot. He exposes their corruption and hypocrisy, but does not do their bidding. One by one they retreat, convicted by their own conscience. In His compassion, Jesus looked not toward physical laws, but to the grace of God:
But Jesus bent down and started to write on the ground with his finger. When they kept on questioning him, he straightened up and said to them, "If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her." Again he stooped down and wrote on the ground.
At this, those who heard began to go away one at a time, the older ones first, until only Jesus was left, with the woman still standing there. Jesus straightened up and asked her, "Woman, where are they ? Has no one condemned you ?"
"No one, sir," she said. "Then neither do I condemn you," Jesus declared. "Go now and leave your life of sin."
(John 8: 7 - 11)
Top: 'Christ with the Woman Taken in Adultery' (1621) by Guercino (1591 - 1666).
Bottom: Love cuts down a revolver... 'The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah' (1832) by John Martin (1789 - 1854).
When Ian resignedly sings that he is "stood damned in Sodom and Gomorrah", he is using the imminent doom of the inhabitants of Sodom and Gomorrah as an analogy to describe the fate of inhabitants of Britain's colonies.
By the time Lot reached Zoar, the sun had risen over the land. Then the LORD rained down burning sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah - from the LORD out of the heavens. Thus he overthrew those cities and the entire plain, including all those living in the cities - and also the vegetation in the land. But Lot's wife looked back, and she became a pillar of salt.
(Genesis 19: 23 - 26)
Love (meaning God - see Love Spreads) cuts down a revolver, by raining down burning sulfur on Sodom and Gomorrah.
With the coming of dawn, the angels urged Lot, saying, "Hurry ! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here, or you will be swept away when the city is punished."
When he hesitated, the men grasped his hand and the hands of his wife and of his two daughters and led them safely out of the city, for the Lord was merciful to them. As soon as they had brought them out, one of them said, "Flee for your lives ! Don't look back, and don't stop anywhere in the plain ! Flee to the mountains or you will be swept away !"
(Genesis 19: 15 - 17)
Top row: NME cover feature, September 1995. In 1995, the Balkans war was tearing Bosnia apart. The Stone Roses contributed to the War Child 'Help' project by recording a live-in-the-studio version of Love Spreads. Featuring contributions from Oasis, Blur, Radiohead, The Stone Roses, Portishead, The Manic Street Preachers, Massive Attack, Paul McCartney and Paul Weller, the album was recorded in just 3 days. From midnight on Monday 4th September 1995, 20 artists and bands entered studios from Wales to Malaga to record their tracks. Brian Eno started mastering the tracks on Tuesday and by Wednesday, finished copies of the album were ready for distribution. By Friday, over 300,000 copies had been delivered to record shops throughout the country. On the Saturday alone, the album sold enough copies to reach number one. The record went on to raise £1.25m, which was put to use in Sarajevo almost immediately. John Squire provided cover artwork for both the 'Help' LP (second row) and EP (third row, left) respectively. This blood-stained EP artwork positions the cry for help in a merciless tank-like besiegement. He also created the cover artwork for two later War Child projects, 2005's 'Help! A Day in the Life' (third row, right) and 2009's 'Heroes' (fourth row). Squire's 'Help! A Day in the Life' artwork auctioned at the Proud Gallery, London in December 2005, selling for £6,000 pounds. The auction raised £15,000 in total for War Child. Squire spoke to the NME in March 2009 about the 'Heroes' artwork: "They told me Bowie and the Ramones might be involved, so the first two things I offered them were based on lyrics. They rejected those, I think over the last few years I've forgotten how to make record sleeves ! So this is the final offering, it's a bit literal now. I did some exhaustive research, found some psycho website full of guns." Speaking to War Child in 2009, Squire explained the concept of the 'Heroes' artwork: "I wanted something that had a childlike quality and the feeling of wallpaper. The children involved in dealing with the trauma of living in a warzone quite often draw guns themselves. I came up with this idea of using crude, childlike crayon drawings of machine guns." This artwork was auctioned on Ebay, raising £5,000 for War Child.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between April 1992 and December 1995. The main belligerents were the forces of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and those of the self-proclaimed Bosnian Serb and Bosnian Croat entities within Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia. Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia enjoyed substantial political and military backing from Serbia and Croatia respectively. The war was as a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia. Following the Slovenian and Croatian secessions from Yugoslavia in 1991, the multiethnic Yugoslavian republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which consisted of mainly Muslim Bosniaks (44%), Orthodox Serbs (31%) and Catholic Croats (17%), passed a referendum for independence on 29th February 1992. This was rejected by Bosnian Serb political representatives, who had boycotted the referendum and established their own republic of Republika Srpska. Following the declaration of independence, Bosnian Serb forces, supported by the Serbian government of Slobodan Milosevic and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) attacked the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina in order to secure Serbian territory and war soon broke out across Bosnia. This was accompanied by the ethnic cleansing of the Bosniak population, especially in Eastern Bosnia. The state administration of Bosnia and Herzegovina effectively ceased to function, having lost control over the entire territory. While they formally supported the declaration of independence, Bosnian Croat forces and Croatian president Franjo Tudman also aimed at securing parts of Bosnia and Herzegovina as Croatian. Secret discussions between Franjo Tudman and Slobodan Milosevic on the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina were held as early as March 1991, resulting in the Karadordevo agreement. It was principally a territorial conflict, initially between the Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which was largely - though not exclusively - composed of Bosniaks, and Bosnian Croat forces on the one side, and Bosnian Serb forces on the other, until the outbreak of the Croat-Bosniak War in June 1992. The war was characterized by bitter fighting, indiscriminate shelling of cities and towns, ethnic cleansing, systematic mass rape and genocide. Events such as the Siege of Sarajevo, Omarska camp and the Srebrenica massacre would come to typify the conflict. The Serbs, although initially superior due to the vast amount of weapons and resources provided by the JNA eventually lost momentum as Bosniaks and Croats allied themselves against Republika Srpska in 1994, with the creation of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, following the end of the Croat-Bosniak war. Following the Srebrenica and Markale massacres, NATO intervened during the 1995 Operation Deliberate Force against the positions of the Army of Republika Srpska, which internationalized the conflict, but only in its final stages. The war was brought to an end after the signing of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina in Paris, on 14th December 1995. Peace negotiations were held in Dayton, Ohio, and were finalized on 21st December 1995. The number of people killed is estimated at around 100,000, and the number displaced at over 2.2 million, making it the most devastating conflict in Europe since the end of World War II.
Fifth row (left): The Bosnian parliament building burns after being hit by Serbian artillery fire in Sarajevo, May 1992. The Siege of Sarajevo was the longest siege of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. Serb forces of the Republika Srpska and the Yugoslav People's Army besieged Sarajevo, the capital city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, from 5th April 1992 to 29th February 1996. After Bosnia and Herzegovina had declared independence from Yugoslavia, the Serbs, whose strategic goal was to create a new Serbian State of Republika Srpska (RS) that would include part of the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, encircled Sarajevo with a siege force of 18,000 stationed in the surrounding hills. From here, they assaulted the city with weapons that included artillery, mortars, tanks, anti-aircraft guns, heavy machine-guns, multiple rocket launchers, rocket-launched aircraft bombs, and sniper rifles. From 2nd May 1992, the Serbs blockaded the city. The Bosnian government defence forces inside the besieged city were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege. It is estimated that nearly 10,000 people were killed or went missing in the city, including over 1,500 children. An additional 56,000 people were wounded, including nearly 15,000 children. After the war, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) convicted two Serb generals of numerous crimes against humanity in their conduct of the siege. Stanislav Galic and Dragomir Milosevic were sentenced to life imprisonment and to 29 years imprisonment, respectively. One of the 11 indictments against former president of Republika Srpska Radovan Karadzic is for the siege. The prosecution alleged in an opening statement that: "The Siege of Sarajevo, as it came to be popularly known, was an episode of such notoriety in the conflict in the former Yugoslavia that one must go back to World War II to find a parallel in European history. Not since then had a professional army conducted a campaign of unrelenting violence against the inhabitants of a European city so as to reduce them to a state of medieval deprivation in which they were in constant fear of death. In the period covered in this Indictment, there was nowhere safe for a Sarajevan, not at home, at school, in a hospital, from deliberate attack."
Fifth row (right): Estimates suggest that at least 25,000 women were raped during the Bosnian War, and that about one thousand children were born out of such abuses.
Bottom: Downtown Grbavica, a suburb of Sarajevo, on 19th March 1996. These apartments and houses once occupied by Bosnia Serbs are the last group to be turned over to the Muslims, as required by the recent Dayton Peace Accord.
Council on Foreign Relations - The Power Behind Big News ... watch segment at 4:32
* This famous poem, written by Britain's imperial poet, was a response to the American takeover of the Philippines after the Spanish-American War. Although Kipling's poem mixed exhortation to empire with sober warnings of the costs involved, imperialists within the United States latched onto the phrase 'white man's burden' as a characterization for imperialism that justified the policy as a noble enterprise.
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